Hunink MG, Goldman L, Tosteson AN, Mittleman MA, Goldman PA, Williams LW, et al: The recent decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, 1980-1990. The effect of secular trends in risk factors and treatment. JAMA. 1997, 277: 535-42. 10.1001/jama.277.7.535.
Statistics Canada. Causes of Death 2003. accessed July 20, 2008, [http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/84-208-XIE/2005002/tables.htm#9]
The Growing Burden of Heart Disease and Stroke in Canada 2003. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. accessed July 20, 2008, [http://www.cvdinfobase.ca/cvdbook/CVD_En03.pdf]
Economic Burden of Illness in Canada, Policy Research Division, Strategic Policy Directorate, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada. accessed October 20, 2000, [http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ebic-femc98/index-eng.php]
Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group: Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet. 1994, 344: 1383-89.
Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD, Cole TG, et al: The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1996, 335: 1001-9. 10.1056/NEJM199610033351401.
The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group: Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1998, 339: 1349-57. 10.1056/NEJM199811053391902.
MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002, 360: 7-22. 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09327-3.
Schwartz GG, Olsson AG, Ezekowitzz MD, et al: Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes: the MIRACL study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001, 285: 1711-8. 10.1001/jama.285.13.1711.
Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB, Bollen EL, Buckley BM, Cobbe SM, on behalf of the PROSPER study group, et al: Lancet. 2002, 360: 1623-30. 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11600-X.
Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCab CH, Rader DJ, Rouleau JL, Belder R, for the pravastatin or atorvastatin evaluation and infection therapy-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 22 investigators, et al: Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2004, 350: 1495-504. 10.1056/NEJMoa040583.
de Lomos JA, Blazing MA, Wiviott SD, Lewis EF, Fox KA, White HD, for the A to Z Investigators: Early intensive vs a delayed conservative simvastatin strategy in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Phase Z of the A to Z trial. JAMA. 2004, 292: 1307-16. 10.1001/jama.292.11.1307.
LaRosa JC: Justifying lipid-lowering therapy in persons ∃ 65 years of age. Am Journ Cardiol. 2002, 90: 1330-32. 10.1016/S0002-9149(02)02872-2.
Dombrook-Lavender KA, Roth MT, Pieper JA: Secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in the elderly. Ann Pharmacol. 2003, 37: 1867-76. 10.1345/aph.1D026.
Grundy SM: Statin therapy in older persons: Pertinent issues. Arch Intern Med. 2002, 162: 1329-31. 10.1001/archinte.162.12.1329.
Kagansky N, Levy S, Berner Y, Rimon E, Knobler H: Cholesterol lowering in the older population: time for reassessment?. Q J Med. 2001, 94: 457-63.
Teo KK, Burton JR: Who should receive HMG CoA reductase inhibitors?. Drugs. 2002, 62: 1707-15. 10.2165/00003495-200262120-00001.
Jackevicius CA, Anderson GM, Leiter L, Tu JV: Use of statins in patients after myocardial infarction. Does evidence change practice. Arch Intern Med. 2001, 161: 183-8. 10.1001/archinte.161.2.183.
Levy AR, O'Brien BJ, McCullen E, May FW, Demers C, Marshall D, et al: Rapid increase in statins newly dispensed to Ontario seniors between 1994 and 2000. Can J Cardiol. 2003, 19: 665-9.
Cooke C, Nissan L, Sketris I, Tett S: Quantifying the Use of the Statin Antilipemic Drugs: Comparisons and Contrasts Between Nova Scotia, Canada, and Queensland, Australia. Clin Ther. 2005, 27: 497-508. 10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.04.009.
Rothwell P: External validity of randomised controlled trials: 'To whom do the results of this trial apply?'. Lancet. 2005, 365: 82-93. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17670-8.
Wieringa NF, Vos R, Werf van der GT, Veen van der WJ, de Graeff PA: Co-morbidity of 'clinical trial' versus 'real-world' patients using cardiovascular drugs. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2000, 9: 569-79. 10.1002/pds.541.
Martin K, Begaud B, Latry P, Miremont-Salame G, Fourrier A, Moore N: Differences between clinical trials and postmarketing use. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004, 57: 86-92. 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01953.x.
Cox JL, Johnstone D, Nemis-White J, Montague T, for the ICONS Investigators, Optimizing Healthcare at the Population Level: Results of the Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia Partnership, Healthcare Quarterly. 2008, 11 (2): 28-41.
Cox JL: Optimizing disease management at a health care system level: the rationale and methods of the improving cardiovascular outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) study. Can J Cardiol. 1999, 15 (7): 787-796.
Population Health Research Unit (PHRU). accessed July 20, 2008, [http://www.phru.dal.ca/]
Health Canada. Drug Product Database. accessed October 20, 2009, [http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/databasdon/index-eng.php]
World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology: ATC Index with DDDs, 2002. 2002, Oslo, Norway: World Health Organization
Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Lin D, Weiss NS, Siscovick DS, Rosendaal FR, et al: Assessment and control for confounding by indication in observational studies. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999, 47: 749-54.
Rockwood K, Kirkland S, Hogan DB, MacKnight C, Merry H, Verreault R, et al: Use of lipid-lowering agents, indication bias, and the risk of dementia in community-dwelling elderly people. Arch Neurol. 2002, 59: 223-7. 10.1001/archneur.59.2.223.
Signorello LB, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Friis S, Sorensen HT, Blot WJ: Confounding by indication in epidemiologic studies of commonly used analgesics. Am J Ther. 2002, 9: 199-205. 10.1097/00045391-200205000-00005.
Concato J, Horwitz RI: Beyond randomized versus observational studies (Commentary). Lancet. 2004, 363: 1660-61. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16285-5.
Schneeweiss S, Seeger JD, Maclure M, Wang PS, Avorn J, Glynn RJ: Performance of comorbidity scores to control for confounding in epidemiologic studies using claims data. Am J Epidemiol. 2001, 154: 854-64. 10.1093/aje/154.9.854.
Schneeweiss S, Wang PS, Avorn J, Glynn RJ: Improved comorbidity adjustment for predicting mortality in Medicare populations. Health Serv Res. 2003, 38: 1103-20. 10.1111/1475-6773.00165.
Schneeweiss S, Wang PS, Avorn J, Maclure M, Levin R, Glynn RJ: Consistency of performance ranking of comorbidity adjustment scores in Canadian and U.S. utilization data. J Gen Intern Med. 2004, 19: 444-50. 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30109.x.
Schneeweiss S, Maclure M: Use of comorbity scores for control of confounding in studies using administrative databases. Int J Epidemiol. 2000, 29: 891-8. 10.1093/ije/29.5.891.
Glynn RJ, Knight EL, Levin R, Avorn J: Paradoxical relations of drug treatment with mortality in older persons. Epidemiology. 2001, 12: 682-89. 10.1097/00001648-200111000-00017.
Ko DT, Mamdani M, Alter DA: Lipid-lowering therapy with statins in high-risk elderly patients: the treatment paradox. JAMA. 2004, 291: 1864-70. 10.1001/jama.291.15.1864.
Yang CC, Jick SS, Testa MA: Who receives lipid-lowering drugs: the effects of comorbidities and patient characteristics on treatment initiation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003, 55: 288-98. 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01724.x.
D'Agostino RB: Propensity score methods for bias reduction in the comparison of a treatment to a non-randomized control group. Statist Med. 1998, 17: 2265-81. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19981015)17:19<2265::AID-SIM918>3.0.CO;2-B.
Rubin DB: Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores. Ann Intern Med. 1997, 127: 757-63.
Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB: The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika. 1983, 70: 41-55. 10.1093/biomet/70.1.41.
Joffe MM, Rosenbaum PR: Invited commentary: propensity scores. Am J Epidemiol. 1999, 150: 327-33.
Ohman EM, Granger CB, Harrington RA, Lee KL: Risk stratification and therapeutic decision making in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2000, 284: 876-878. 10.1001/jama.284.7.876.
SAS/ETS Version 8.2. 2001, Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute Inc
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult treatment Panel III): Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult treatment III final report). Circulation. 2002, 106: 3143-21.
Tonkin A, Barter P, Best J, Boyden A, Furler J, Hossack K, et al: National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand: position statement on lipid management--2005. Heart Lung Circ. 2005, 14 (4): 275-91. 10.1016/j.hlc.2005.10.009.
Fonarow GC, French WJ, Parsons LS, Sun H, Malimgreen JA, for the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 3 Participants: Use of lipid-lowering medications at discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Data from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 3. Circulation. 2001, 103: 38-44.
Beck CA, Lauzon C, Eisenberg MJ, Huynh T, Dion D, Roux R, Racine N, Carignan S, Diodati JG, Charbonneau F, Levesque C, Pouliot JJ, Pilote LL: Discharge prescriptions following admission for acute myocardial infarction at tertiary care and community hospitals in Quebec. Can J Cardiol. 2001, 17: 33-40.
Pilote L, Beck CA, Karp I, Alter D, Austin P, Cox J, Humphries K, Jackevicius C, Richard H, Tu JV, Canadian Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Team: Secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction in four Canadian provinces, 1997-2000. Can J Cardiol. 2004, 20 (1): 61-7.
Simpson E, Beck C, Richard H, Eisenberg MJ, Pilote L: Drug prescriptions after acute myocardial infarction: dosage, compliance, and persistence. Am Heart J. 2003, 145: 438-44. 10.1067/mhj.2003.143.
McAlister FA, Taylor L, Teo KK, Tsuyuki RT, Ackman ML, et al: The treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease in Canada: do older patients receive efficacious therapies? The Clinical Quality Improvement Network (CQIN) Investigators. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999, 47: 811-8.
Harrold LR, Lessard D, Yarzebski J, Gurwitz JH, Gore JM, Goldberg RJ: Ageand sex differences in the treatment of patients with initial acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective. Cardiology. 2003, 99: 39-46. 10.1159/000068445.
Sgadari A, Incalzi RA, Onder G, Pedone C, Gambassi G: Lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary artery disease: sex or age bias? (Letter). Arch Intern Med. 2000, 160: 2684-5. 10.1001/archinte.160.17.2684.
Miller M, Byington R, Hunninghake D, Pitt B, Furberg CD: Sex bias and underutilization of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary artery disease at academic medical centers in the United States and Canada. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Vascular Effects of Norvasc Trial (PREVENT) Investigators. Arch Intern Med. 2000, 160: 343-7. 10.1001/archinte.160.3.343.
Alter DA, Naylor CD, Austin PC, Tu JV: Biology or bias: practice patterns and long-term outcomes for men and women with acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002, 39: 1909-16. 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01892-2.
Majeed A, Moser K, Maxwell R: Age, sex and practice variations in the use of statins in general practice in England and Wales. J Public Health Med. 2000, 22: 275-9. 10.1093/pubmed/22.3.275.
Stocks NP, Ryan P, McElroy H, Allan J: Statin prescribing in Australia: socioeconomic and sex differences. A cross-sectional study. Med J Aust. 2004, 180: 229-31.
DeWilde S, Carey IM, Bremner SA, Richards N, Hilton SR, Cook DG: Evolution of statin prescribing 1994-2001: a case of agism but not of sexism?. Heart. 2003, 89: 417-21. 10.1136/heart.89.4.417.
Williams D, Bennett K, Feely J: Evidence for an age and gender bias in the secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in primary care. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003, 55: 604-8. 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01795.x.
Miettinen TA, Pyorala K, Olsson AG, Musliner TA, Cook TJ, Faergeman O, et al: Cholesterol-lowering therapy in women and elderly patients with myocardial infarction or angina pectoris: findings from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Circulation. 1997, 96: 4211-8.
Lewis SJ, Moye LA, Sacks FM, Johnstone DE, Timmis G, Mitchell J, et al: Effect of pravastatin on cardiovascular events in older patients with myocardial infarction and cholesterol levels in the average range. Results of the Cholesterol and recurrent Events (CARE) trial. Ann Intern Med. 1998, 129: 681-89.
Hunt D, Young P, Simes J, for the LIPID investigators, et al: Benefits of pravastatin on cardiovascular events and mortality in older patients with coronary heart disease are equal to or exceed those seen in younger patients: results from the LIPID trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001, 134: 931-40.
Acevedo M, Sprecher DL, Lauer MS, Francis G: Routine statin treatment after acute coronary syndromes?. Am Heart J. 2002, 143: 940-2. 10.1067/mhj.2002.122284.
Isles CG: Patients with acute coronary syndrome should start a statin while still in hospital [editorial]. Heart. 2002, 88: 5-6. 10.1136/heart.88.1.5.
Fonarow CG, Ballantyne CM: In hospital initiation of lipid lowering therapy for patients with coronary heart disease: the time is now. Circulation. 2001, 103: 2768-70.
Olsson AG, Schwartz : Early initiation of treatment with statins in acute coronary syndromes. Ann Med. 2002, 34: 37-41. 10.1080/078538902317338625.
Spin JM, Vagelos RH: Early use of statins in acute coronary syndromes. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003, 5: 44-51. 10.1007/s11883-003-0068-0.
Paradiso-Hardy FL, Gordon WL, Jackevicius CA, Kertland HR, Pearson GJ, Pickering JL, Poirier L, Semchuk BM, Verret L: The importance of in-hospital statin therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. Pharmacotherapy. 2003, 23: 506-13. 10.1592/phco.23.4.506.32129.
Eaton CB, Lapane KL, Murphy JB, Hume AL: Effect of statin (HMG-Co-A-Reductase inhibitor) use on 1-year mortality and hospitalization rates in older patients with cardiovascular disease living in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Society. 2002, 50: 1389-95. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50360.x.
Roos NP, Mustard CA: Variation in health and health care use by socioeconomic status in Winnipeg, Canada: does the system work well? Yes and no. Millbank Q. 1997, 75: 89-111. 10.1111/1468-0009.00045.
Wilson DM, Truman CD: Evaluating institutionalization by comparing the use of health services before and after admission to a long-term-care facility. Eval Health Prof. 2004, 27: 219-36. 10.1177/0163278704267036.
Wilt TJ, Bloomfield HE, MacDonald R, Nelson D, Rutzs I, Ho M, et al: Effectiveness of Statin Therapy in Adults with Coronary Heart Disese. Arch Intern Med. 2004, 164: 1427-36. 10.1001/archinte.164.13.1427.
Afilalo J, Duque G, Steele R, Jukema JW, de Craen AJM, Eisenberg M: Statins for Secondary Prevention in Elderly Patients: A Hierarchical Bayesian Meta- Analysis. JACC. 2008, 51 (1): 37-45.
Allen-Maycock CA, Muhlestein JB, Horne BD, Carlquist JF, Bair TL, et al: Statin therapy is associated with reduced mortality across all age groups of individuals with significant coronary disease, including very elderly patients. JACC. 2002, 40: 1777-85.
Aronow HD, Topol EJ, Roe MT, Houghtaling PL, Wolski KE, et al: Effect of lipid-lowering therapy on early mortality after acute coronary syndromes: an observational study. Lancet. 2001, 357: 1063-8. 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04257-4.
Wei L, Ebrahim S, Bartlett C, Davey PG, Sullivan FM, MacDonald TM: Statin use in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in primary care: cohort study and comparison of inclusion and outcome with patients in randomised trials. BMJ. 2005, 330: 821-10.1136/bmj.38398.408032.8F.
Foody JM, Rathore SS, Galusha D, Masoudi FA, Havranek EP, Radford MJ, Krumholz HM: Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors in older persons with acute myocardial infarction: evidence for an age-statin interaction. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006, 54: 421-30. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.00635.x.
Dunlop S, Coyte PC, McIsaac W: Socio-economic status and the utilisation of physicians' services: results from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Soc Sci Med. 2000, 51: 123-33. 10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00424-4.
Pilote L, Beck C, Richard H, Eisenberg MJ: The effects of cost-sharing on essential drug prescriptions, utilization of medical care and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients. CMAJ. 2002, 167: 246-52.
Pilote L, Joseph L, Belisle P, Penrod J: Universal health insurance coverage does not eliminate inequities in access to cardiac procedures after acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2003, 146: 1030-7. 10.1016/S0002-8703(03)00448-4.