This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Good physicians from the perspective of their patients
© Schattner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
Received: 25 January 2004
Accepted: 12 September 2004
Published: 12 September 2004
It is not currently known what is the patient's viewpoint of a "good" physician. We set out to define patient's priorities regarding different physician's attributes in 3 domains important in medical care.
Patients hospitalized or attending clinics at a large teaching hospital selected the 4 attributes that they considered most important out of 21 listed arbitrarily in a questionnaire. The questionnaire included 7 items each in the domains of patient autonomy, professional expertise and humanism.
Participating patients (n = 445, mean age 57.5 ± 16 years) selected professional expertise (50%), physician's patience and attentiveness (38% and 30%, respectively), and informing the patient, representing the patient's interests, being truthful and respecting patient's preferences (25–36% each) as the most essential attributes. Patient's selections were not significantly influenced by different demographic or clinical background. Selections of attributes in the domain of patient's autonomy were significantly more frequent and this was the preferred domain for 31% and as important as another domain for 16% – significantly more than the domain of professional expertise (P = 0.008), and much more than the domain of humanism and support (P < 0.0005).
Patients studied want their physicians to be highly professional and expert clinicians and show humaneness and support, but their first priority is for the physician to respect their autonomy.
An expert clinician whose choices are evidence-based; sensitive and dedicated to the patient – not just disease-oriented; who heeds and respects the patient's autonomy, striving at conveying all relevant information to the patient to enable a truly shared decision-making. That can be seen as a prototype or role model of a first class physician. However, these laudable qualities, discussed in many texts [1–3], were purely conceived by physicians, for physicians. How do patients value these different physicians' qualities? What would their priorities be? This unique point of view, little discussed in previous studies, is the subject of our current research.
Patients hospitalized at our 600-bed teaching medical center or attending one of its day clinics were randomly approached and asked to fill in a one-page questionnaire. Over a period of one month, patients were approached by one of the authors (DR) and invited to participate. Every third patient on the specific day's ambulatory clinic lists and every fifth patient on the list of patients hospitalized at the Department of Medicine were approached. If the fifth patient was found to be too ill to participate (e.g. ventilated, unstable or confused) the next name on the list was selected. These numbers were arbitrarily chosen. Following a brief explanation they were handed the questionnaire. The questionnaire listed 21 physicians' characteristics or behaviors regarding the care of patients, presented in a varying order (different order for different patients) to prevent bias due to an item's position on the list. Patients were asked to select 4 attributes that they considered the most important and would like the best in their own physician. No grading was required. The questionnaire aimed at the patient's image of an excellent physician in general, and did not specify whether the physician was hospital-based or in primary care. The 21 attributes included 7 characteristics in each one of three domains: reflecting professional expertise and high-quality care; reflecting a humanitarian, patient-centered approach; and reflecting patient's autonomy and attentiveness to the patient's preferences and rights. Then patients supplied basic demographic data and the questionnaire was collected about 20 minutes later. The selection of the 21 different physician characteristics or behaviors started from collecting pertinent articles on patient autonomy; physician's humanism and patient support; and on physicians' expertise and professionalism using the author's (AS) collection and a Medline search. Some of the articles were based on patient-derived data. The next stage involved a series of meetings and discussions at the Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School, Boston. Three senior researchers (2 clinicians, all with extensive experience in research and medical education) – RH Fletcher, T Peters and AS, selected and categorized the 21 items based on the literature and on personal experience. The third stage was a validation study among thirty residents in various stages of their training. They were presented with a mixed list of the 21 items and requested to categorize each one into one of the 3 domains. To rule out that patients categorized these characteristics differently, we performed an additional post-study validation on 30 outpatients that were representative of our study population. Results were similar to those obtained from the residents and confirmed that the vast majority of participants view each of the items as representative of the corresponding domain (Appendix 1) [see additional file 1]. No changes in classification were necessary following the validation study. We planned to a) quantify and study the most 'popular' physician's attributes selected by patients as well as those selected by only a few patients. b) find-out for each patient, whether any one domain was over-represented in the patient's selections (e.g. 2 out of 4 selections belonging to a single domain and less than 2 for each of the others) or – under-represented (no selections in a domain). The study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square tests to examine differences between the domains, and between preference of each domain and demographic variables. T-test or one-way ANOVA were used when appropriate.
Characteristics of 445 patients participating in the study (%).
The eight 'best' physicians' qualities preferred by more than a quarter of the patients (Top) and the least desired physicians' qualities, each preferred by less than 5% of the patients (Bottom).
Physicians' attribute / Domain**
Patients' preference (Number, %)
Informs the patient [Auton.]
Represents patient's interests [Auton.]
Respects patient's preferences [Auton.]
Patient's priorities according to domains (n = 445), number (%).
Preferred domain #
Important domain ##
No choices in the domain
P = 0.008 vs. Prof
P < 0.0005 vs. Hum.
P < 0.0005 vs. Hum.
Our study population of 445 patients was heterogeneous (Table 1), yet no statistically significant relationship could be demonstrated between demographic or clinical variables and patient's choices or priorities. These facts lend more impact to our findings.
Patient's preferences of physician's attributes were found to be as unique and individual as the patients themselves. It is remarkable that among 445 patients, only 6 made identical choices (1%). Not surprisingly, patients want their physicians to be experienced and highly professional. This was the physician's characteristic that was chosen by 50% of the patients (Table 2, Top). However, 4 of the other 7 most frequently selected attributes, each selected by 25–38% of the patients, were in the domain of patient's autonomy (523/1172 responses, 45%). The distinct priority accorded by patients to attributes in the realm of patient's autonomy, overrides even the domain of professionalism, and certainly that of physician's humanism and support. Attributes belonging to the domain of patient's autonomy were uncommon among the least demanded attributes (1 of 5, Table 2, Bottom), and were significantly more often selected and less often disregarded than any other domain (Table 3). In contrast, attributes of humanism were not selected at all by almost 30% of participating patients. An overview of the results reveals that patients studied want their physicians to show professional expertise and provide humane personal care (a preferred or important domain for 39% or 28% of the patients, respectively) (Table 3) – however, it is even more important to them to be well informed and participate in decisions (Tables 2, Top, and 3).
On the other hand, 'humane' qualities that are traditionally considered important, such as showing empathy or being friendly with the patient were surprisingly found to be among the least selected attributes (3–4%, Table 2, Bottom). Moreover, patients participating in this study seldom selected professional qualities such as research and teaching abilities, although they often go hand in hand with appointments at academic medical centers and high quality medical care . Patients also seemed unaware of the unequivocal power of the prevention of "accidents waiting to happen"  that can be offered to them by professional physician's counsel. Only 69 patients (15.5%) selected this option as one of four of their priorities. What patients did value, in addition to clinical experience and being up-to-date (Table 2, Top), was for their physicians not to be impatient (38%) or distracted (30%). These two attributes, perhaps the most vulnerable to current time constraints in clinical practice, may reflect patient's needs of a more relaxed, leisurely communication with their physician, be it at the hospital or in primary care. This issue may be more pertinent with the recent changes in context of the consultation, mandating more informed patients and shared decision-making [6, 7].
The reason why patient's autonomy features so highly in our study, is not entirely clear. The patient population was heterogeneous (Table 1) so that factors related to origin, income or education are unlikely to be operative. Our medical center is serving a large (about 250,000) population in central Israel which is mostly urban but also rural, and has nothing unique regarding physicians or health delivery system. It is conceivable that the growing emphasis in recent years on patient's rights and patient's autonomy which is prominently reflected in the media and draws much public attention, affected patient's preferences. Further studies will be needed to determine whether, as we believe, our results reflect a novel worldwide trend in patient's preferences. Several limitations of our study ought to be considered. The study was performed in Israel, on a predominantly Jewish population. Thus, its generalizability is open to question. However, Jewish medical ethics put no special value on patient's autonomy so that the findings are likely to apply to other Western affluent societies as well. Also, intentionally, our methodology does not address the relative weight of respondent opinion. Thus, it is likely – but uncertain – that choosing more attributes in a domain is the crucial measure of the relative importance of a domain. Finally, we cannot be entirely certain that the selection process did not lead to some bias, although we consider this contingency to be unlikely.
The age of paternalism in medical care has come to an end and few are sorry for its demise. Most patients want to be informed about their health even if the news are bad , and to be involved with their care plans . To do that, patients must have clear information, which takes into account their unique circumstances , and there is no better source for that than the patient's physician. Our results strongly suggest that patients expect their physicians to heed these needs and prefer physicians who are sensitive to the varied aspects of patient's autonomy and patient's rights (Appendix 1) [see additional file 1]. The studies of Thom et al. have already indicated that certain physician's behaviors were important for patient's trust. Prominent among them were discussing options with the patient and finding out preferences – essential components of patient autonomy . Similar to the present study, measures of professional competence and humanism were also required. Patient trust was significantly correlated with compliance and with clinical improvement . Since patient trust appears to be such a crucial component of the patient-physician relationship, and since trust is dependent on patient's preferences being met  it is mandatory to establish what these preferences are today, and this is where our study comes in.
Previous research has already identified the complexity of patient's needs in the modern era. While older studies make no mention of issues of patient autonomy , a relatively recent systematic review of the literature on patient's priorities found "humaneness" to be the most highly rated aspect of care, followed by clinical competence and patient's participation in decisions . Another study from Scotland identified physicians' attentiveness and patience at the top of the list, and patients in the Netherlands mostly desired sufficient consultation time [15, 16]. However, a strong desire for information and participation in decision-making already features in these and other studies [14–18]. Among our patients it came out for the first time as a top priority, second to none (Table 3). Failure of physicians to provide a patient-centered approach may therefore seriously undermine patient's expectations and satisfaction. Recent data suggest that this may be associated with significant adverse outcomes [19, 20]. Physicians can be effectively trained to listen to the patient's narrative , recognize the patient's perspective [7, 22] and adopt a more patient-centered approach . However, besides skills in communication [21, 24, 25], this requires time. Time management can also be effectively taught  but it is still unclear whether decreasing hospital length of stay and consultation time in primary care will not adversely affect physicians' performance and patient's expectations . Nevertheless, patient's preferences remain integral to modern evidence-based practice , and our study should provide a poignant reminder that autonomy is nowadays what the patients want most.
Our study focused on the selections of several hundred outpatients and inpatients, regarding their preferences for different attributes of their physicians. We found heterogeneous preferences, but attributes in the domain of patient autonomy and physicians' expertise (in that order), headed the list.
The advice of Robert Fletcher, MD, MPH and Toni Peters, PhD of the Harvard Medical School, Boston in the design of this study is greatly appreciated.
- Tumulty PA: What is a clinician and what does he do?. N Engl J Med. 1970, 283: 20-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldman L, Plum F, Bennett JC: Medicine as a learned and humane profession. In: Cecil Textbook of Medicine. Edited by: Goldman L, Bennett JC. 2000, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1-4. 21Google Scholar
- Schattner A, Fletcher R: Pearls and pitfalls in patient care. Need to revive traditional clinical values. Am J Med Sci. 2004, 327: 79-85. 10.1097/00000441-200402000-00005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wright SM, Kern DE, Kolodner K, Howard DM, Brancati FL: Attributes of excellent attending-physician role models. N Engl J Med. 1998, 339: 1986-93. 10.1056/NEJM199812313392706.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leape LL: Error in medicine. JAMA. 1994, 272: 1851-7. 10.1001/jama.272.23.1851.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freeman GK, Horder JP, Howie JGR, Hungin AP, Hill AP, Shah NC, Wilson A: Evolving general practice consultations in Britain: issues of length and context. BMJ. 2002, 324: 880-2. 10.1136/bmj.324.7342.880.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kassirer JP: Incorporating patients' preferences into medical decisions. N Engl J Med. 1994, 330: 1895-6. 10.1056/NEJM199406303302611.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schattner A, Tal M: Truth telling and patient's autonomy: the patient's point of view. Am J Med. 2002, 113: 66-9. 10.1016/S0002-9343(02)01127-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coulter A: The autonomous patient: ending paternalism in medical care. The Nuffield Trust. 2003Google Scholar
- Muir Gray JA: The resourceful patient. eRosetta Press, [http://www.Resourcefulpatient.org]
- Thom DH: Stanford Trust Study Physicians. Physician behaviors that predict patient trust. J Fam Pract. 2001, 50: 323-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thom DH, Kravitz RL, Bell Ra, Krupat E, Azari R: Patient trust in the physician: relationship to patient requests. Fam Pract. 2002, 19: 476-83. 10.1093/fampra/19.5.476.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fletcher RH, O'Malley MS, Earp JA, Littleton TA, Fletcher SW, Greganti MA, Davidson RA, Taylor J: Patients' priorities for medical care. Med Care. 1983, 21: 234-42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wensing M, Jung HP, Mainz J, Olesen F, Grol R: A systematic review of the literature on patient priorities for general practice care. Part 1: description of the research domain. Soc Sci Med. 1998, 47: 1573-88. 10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00222-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carroll L, Sullivan FM, Colledge M: Good health care: patient and professional perspectives. Br J Gen Pract. 1998, 48: 1507-8.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jung HP, Wensing M, Grol R: What makes a good general practitioner: do patients and doctors have different views?. Br J Gen Pract. 1997, 47: 805-9.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- McKeown RE, Reinonger BM, Martin M, Hoppmann RA: Shared decision making: views of first-year residents and clinic patients. Acad Med. 2002, 77: 438-45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogden J, Ambrose L, Khadra A, Manthri S, Symons L, Vass A, Williams M: A questionnaire study of GP's and patients' beliefs about the different components of patient centeredness. Patient Educ Couns. 2002, 47: 223-7. 10.1016/S0738-3991(01)00200-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Little P, Everitt H, Williamson I, Warner G, Moore M, Gould C, Ferrier K, Payne S: Observational study on effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. BMJ. 2001, 323: 908-11. 10.1136/bmj.323.7318.908.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Golin C, DiMatteo MR, Duan N, Leake B, Gelberg L: Impoverished diabetic patients whose doctors facilitate their participation in medical decision making are more satisfied with their care. J Gen Intern Med. 2002, 17: 866-75. 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.20120.x.View ArticlePubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Charon R: Narrative medicine. A model for empathy, reflection, profession, and trust. JAMA. 2001, 286: 1897-902. 10.1001/jama.286.15.1897.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coulter A, Fitzpatrick R: The patient's perspective regarding appropriate health care. In: The handbook of social studies in health and medicine. Edited by: Albrecht GL, Fitzpatrick R, Scrimshaw RC. 2000, London, Sage, 454-64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lewin SA, Skea ZC, Entwistle V, Zvarenstein M, Dick J: Interventions for providers to promote a patient centered approach in clinical consultations. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001, CD003267-4Google Scholar
- Maguire P, Pitccathly C: Key communication skills and how to acquire them. BMJ. 2002, 325: 697-700. 10.1136/bmj.325.7366.697.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yedidia MJ, Gillespie CC, Kachur E, Schwartz MD, Ockene J, Chepaitis AE, Snyder CW, Lazare A, Lipkin M: Effect of communications training on medical student performance. JAMA. 2003, 290: 1157-65. 10.1001/jama.290.9.1157.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haynes RB, Devereaux PJ, Guyatt GH: Physicians' and patients' choices in evidence based practice. BMJ. 2002, 324: 1350-10.1136/bmj.324.7350.1350.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/4/26/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.