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Table 2 Characteristics of the articles included in the review

From: Nudging healthcare professionals in clinical settings: a scoping review of the literature

Author/year/ reference Country Design Objective Setting Nudging strategies Nudging medium Statistically significant positive results?
Birnbach et al. 2013 [29] USA RCT (simulated environment) Improve hand hygiene compliance Novice health care providers from collaborating medical school Environmental cueing/priming Physical environment Yes
Bourdeaux et al. 2016 [30] England Prospective controlled pre-post study (time series analysis) Increase use of low TVe ventilation in ICU Tertiary care ICU unit Defaults/pre-orders; Alerts/reminders Medical device/machine; Electronic dashboard Yes
Lewis et al. 2019 [31] England Prospective controlled pre-post study (time series analysis) Reduce unnecessary CT usage 2 hospitals Environmental cueing/priming Test results Yes
Langley et al. 2018 [32] England Retrospective pre-post study (time series analysis) Evaluate whether providing information on the cost of drugs to clinicians would modify total expenditure Acute medical hospital Information transparency EHR No
Probst et al. 2013 [33] USA Randomized vignette-based study Study the effect of opt-in, opt-out, and recommended order sets on laboratory orders Physicians at a collaborating hospital Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Tannenbaum et al. 2014 [34] USA Randomized vignette-based study Improve guideline concordance for acute respiratory infection treatment GPs in the greater Chicago area Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Soon et al. 2018 [35] Australia Randomized vignette-based study Improve guideline concordance for lower back pain treatment GPs across Australia Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Meeker et al. 2014 [36] USA RCT Increase compliance with antibiotic prescription guidelines 5 primary practice clinics Environmental cueing/priming Physical environment Yes
Yadav et al. 2019 [37] USA RCT Improve guideline concordance for acute respiratory infection treatment 5 Emergency Departments and 4 Urgent Care Centers Peer comparison; Environmental cueing/priming, Physical environment, Email Yes
Caris et al. 2018 [38] The Netherlands Prospective pre-post study Improve hand hygiene compliance Two general medicine hospital wards Environmental cueing/priming Physical environment Yes
King et al. 2016 [39] USA RCT Improve hand hygiene compliance Surgical ICU unit Environmental cueing/priming Physical environment Yes
Orloski et al. 2019 [40] USA Prospective controlled pre-post study Improve patient experience by having providers sit down during examination Two emergency departments Environmental cueing/priming Physical environment Yes
Meeker et al. 2016 [41] USA RCT Improve guideline concordance for acute respiratory infection treatment 47 primary care practices Peer comparison; Accountable justification; Suggested alternatives EHR; Email Yes
O’Reilly-Shah et al. 2018 [42] USA Prospective pre-post study with cross-over Improve compliance with lung-protective ventilation strategies during general anaesthesia 2 academic hospitals, 2 non-academic hospitals and 2 academic surgery centres Defaults/pre-orders; Feedback Medical device/machine; Email Yes
Kwok et al. 2016 [43] Australia Prospective pre-post study Improve hand hygiene compliance 2 hospital wards (medical and surgical) Feedback; Goal setting, Email; Routine activities No
Patel et al. 2018 [44] USA RCT Increase guideline-concordant statin prescriptions 32 primary care clinics Alerts/reminders; Active choice; Peer comparison Email, Electronic dashboard Yes
Lehmann et al. 2016 [45] The Netherlands RCT Improve influenza vaccination rates of staff Tertiary care center Defaults/pre-orders Email No
Schmidtke et al. 2019 [46] England RCT Improve influenza vaccination rates of staff Hospital Alerts/reminders Letter No
Harewood et al. 2011 [47] Ireland RCT Evaluate effect of pre-filling sedation syringes on colonoscopy sedation practices Endoscopy specialist care Defaults/pre-orders Routine activities Yes
Shakespeare et al. 2018 [48] Australia Prospective pre-post study Improve administration of analgesic medications after Caesarean section Tertiary teaching hospital Education; Defaults/pre-orders Routine activities Yes
Arora et al. 2019 [49] USA Prospective pre-post study Improve inpatient sleep 2 general medicine hospital wards Active choice; Environmental cueing/priming; Education EHR; Physical environment; Routine activities Yes
Kim et al. 2018 [50] USA Retrospective controlled study Increase influenza vaccination rates and remove any variation due to appointment time 11 primary care clinics Active choice EHR Yes
Patel et al. 2017 [51] USA Retrospective controlled pre-post study Increase influenza vaccination rates 3 primary care clinics Active choice EHR Yes
Malhotra et al. 2016 [52] USA Retrospective pre-post study Increase the prescription of generic medication Multispeciality practice Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Monsen et al. 2019 [53] USA RCT Reduce prescription of high-cost (low-value) medication 58 primary care and 152 specialty care clinics Active choice EHR Yes
Sedrak et al. 2017 [54] USA RCT Reduce unecessary inpatient tests 3 hospitals Information transparency EHR No
Sharma et al. 2019 [55] USA RCT Reduce imaging tests for patient undergoing palliative radiotherapy 5 radiation oncology practices Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Bourdeaux et al. 2013 [56] England Retrospective pre-post study Increase prescription of chlorhexidine mouthwash and reduce the prescription of hydroxyethylstarch to patients in ICU Tertiary care ICU unit Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Panattoni et al. 2018 [57] USA Retrospective pre-post study Increase compliance with diabetes preventive care (use of routine glycated hemoglobin) Ambulatory healthcare system Alerts/reminders; Defaults/pre-orders EHR Yes
Holt et al. 2010 [58] England RCT Improve clinical outcomes and data quality related to cardio-vascular disease 19 primary care clinics Alerts/reminders EHR No