Pallas SW, Minhas D, Pérez-Escamilla R, Taylor L, Curry L, Bradley EH. Community health workers in low- and middle-income countries: what do we know about scaling up and sustainability? Am J Public Health. 2013;103(7):e74–82. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.301102.
WHO. Global strategy on human resources for health: workforce 2030. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.
JLI. Human resources for health. Overcoming the crisis. Cambridge: Global Health Initiative/Harvard UniversityPress; 2004.
Kahssay H, Taylor M, Berman P. Community health workers: the way forward. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.
Rao N, Kaul V. India's integrated child development services scheme: challenges for scaling up. Child Care Health Dev. 2018;44:31–40.
Gragnolati M, Bredenkamp C, Gupta MD, et al. ICDS and persistent Undernutrition: strategies to enhance the impact. Econ Polit Wkly. 2006;41:1193–201.
USAID. Case studies of large-scale community health worker programs; 2014.
Kandpal E. Beyond average treatment effects: distribution of child nutrition outcomes and program placement in India’s ICDS. World Dev. 2011;39(8):1410–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.12.013.
Jain M. India’s struggle against malnutrition—is the ICDS program the answer? World Dev. 2015;67:72–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.10.006.
Mittal N, Meenakshi JV. Utilization of ICDS services and their impact on child health outcomes: evidence from three east Indian states; 2015. Delhi School of Economics. Centre for Development Economics Working Paper 247 (October, 46 pages).
Deolalikar AB. Attaining the millennium development goals in India: reducing infant mortality, child malnutrition, gender disparities, and hunger-poverty, and increasing school enrollment and completion. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; 2005.
Hungama Report. Hungama: Fighting Hunger & Malnutrition. Naandi Foundation; 2011.
Chaturvedi S, Ramji S, Arora NK, Rewal S, Dasgupta R, Deshmukh V. Time-constrained mother and expanding market: emerging model of under-nutrition in India. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3189-4.
Gragnolati M, Bredenkamp C, Shekar M, Das Gupta M, Lee Y-K. India’s undernourished children: a call for reform and action; 2006. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-6587-8.
Kapil U. Integrated child development services (ICDS) scheme: a program for holistic development of children in India. Indian J Pediatr. 2002;69(7):597–601. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02722688.
Chakrabarti S, Raghunathan K, Alderman H, Menon P, Nguyen P. India’s integrated child development services programme; equity and extent of coverage in 2006 and 2016. Bull World Health Organ. 2019;97(4):270–82. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.221135.
Frimpong JA, Helleringer S, Awoonor-Williams JK, Yeji F, Phillips JF. Does supervision improve health worker productivity? Evidence from the upper east region of Ghana: does supervision improve health worker productivity? Tropical Med Int Health. 2011;16(10):1225–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02824.x.
Manzi F, Schellenberg JA, Hutton G, Wyss K, Mbuya C, Shirima K, et al. Human resources for health care delivery in Tanzania: a multifaceted problem. Hum Resour Health. 2012;10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-10-3.
Tani K, Stone A, Exavery A, Njozi M, Baynes CD, Phillips JF, et al. A time-use study of community health worker service activities in three rural districts of Tanzania (Rufiji, Ulanga and Kilombero). BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16(1):1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1718-6.
Sanou AK, Jegede AS, Nsungwa-Sabiiti J, et al. Motivation of community health workers in diagnosing, treating, and referring sick young children in a multicountry study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(suppl 5):S270–5.
Saprii L, Richards E, Kokho P, Theobald S. Community health workers in rural India: Analysing the opportunities and challenges accredited social health activists (ASHAs) face in realising their multiple roles. Hum Resour Health. 2015;13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-015-0094-3.
Bhutta ZA, Lassi ZS, Pariyo GW, Huicho L. Global experience of community health workers for delivery of health related millennium development goals: a systematic review, country case studies and recommendations for integration into National Health Systems. Geneva: WHO/Global Health Workforce Alliance; 2010.
Haq Z, Iqbal Z, Rahman A. Job stress among community health workers: a multi-method study from Pakistan. Int J Ment Heal Syst. 2008;2:15.
Bhattacharyya K, Winch P, LeBan K, Tien M. Community health worker incentives and disincentives: how they affect motivation, retention, and sustainability. Arlington: Published by the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival Project (BASICS II) for the United States Agency for International Development; 2001.
Scott K, Shanker S. Tying their hands? Institutional obstacles to the success of the ASHA community health worker programme in rural North India. AIDS Care. 2010;22(Suppl 2):1606–12.
Bajpai N, Dholakia RH. Improving the performance of accredited social health activists in India. New York: Columbia Global Centers–South Asia, Columbia University; 2011.
NHSRC. ASHA which way forward: evaluation of ASHA program 2010–11. New Delhi; 2011. http://nhsrcindia.org/index.php?option=comcontent&view=article&id=286 [Accessed on 5 September 2019].
Afsar H, Younus M. Recommendations to strengthen the role of lady health workers in the National Program for family planning and primary health Care in Pakistan: the health workers perspective. J Ayub Med College. 2005;17(1):48–53.
Sennun P, Suwannapong N, Howteerakul N, Pacheun O. Participatory supervision model: building health promotion capacity among health officers and the community. Rural Remote Health. 2006;6:440.
World Health Organization. World health report – working together for health; 2006. http://www.who.int/whr/2006/whr06_en.pdf. Accessed on May 14, 2011.
World Health Organization. World health report – health systems financing: the path to universal coverage; 2010. http://www.who.int/whr/2010/whr10_en.pdf. Accessed on May 14, 2011.
Lehmann U, Sanders D. Community health workers: what do we know about them? The state of the evidence on programmes, activities, costs and impact on health outcomes of using community health workers. Geneva: Evidence andInformation for Policy, Department of Human Resources for Health, World Health Organization; 2007.
PATH CsVPa. Guidelines for implementing supportive supervision: a step-by-step guide with tools to support immunization; 2003. http://www.path.org/vaccineresources/files/Guidelines_for_Supportive_Supervision.pdf.
Whidden C, Kayentao K, Liu JX, Lee S, Keita Y, Diakité D, et al. Improving community health worker performance by using a personalised feedback dashboard for supervision: a randomised controlled trial. J Glob Health. 2018;8(2):1. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.08.020418.
Department of Forestry, Government of Madhya Pradesh [http://www.forest.mp.gov.in/Foresttable2.html].
De Costa A, Diwan V. Where is the public health sector? Public and private sector healthcare provision in Madhya Pradesh, India. Health Policy. 2007;84:269–76.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. India National Family Health Survey (NFHS4) 2015–16. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences; 2017. http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-4Reports/India.pdf, accessed 27 February 2019.
Nimmagadda S, Gopalakrishnan L, Avula R, et al. Effects of an mHealth intervention for community health workers on maternal and child nutrition and health service delivery in India: protocol for a quasi-experimental mixed-methods evaluation. BMJ Open. 2018;9:e025774. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025774.
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and Associates Research-Uganda (ARU). “Women’s empowerment in agriculture (WEAI) pilot II for Uganda.” Harvard Dataverse; 2015.
Kahneman D, Krueger AB, Schkade DA, Schwarz N, Stone AA. A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: the day reconstruction method. Science. 2004;306(5702):1776–80. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103572.
Pentland WE, Harvey AS, Lawton MP, McColl MA, editors. Time use research in the social sciences. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1999.
National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development. Handbook for Anganwadi workers. India: New Delhi; 2006.
Malik A, Bhilwar M, Rustagi N, Taneja DK. An assessment of facilities and services at Anganwadi centers under the integrated child development service scheme in Northeast District of Delhi, India. Int J Qual Health Care. 2015;27(3):201–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzv028.
Thakare M, Kuril BM, Doible MK, et al. A study of functioning of Anganwadi centres of urban ICDS block of Aurangabad city. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2011;42:253–8.
Coutinho L, Bisht S, Raje G. Numerical narratives and documentary practices: vaccines, targets and reports of immunisation Programme. Econ Polit Wkly. 2000;35(8/9):656–66 Retrieved July 8, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/4408962.
Haines A, Sanders D, Lehmann U, Rowe AK, Lawn JE, Jan S, et al. Achieving child survival goals: potential contribution of community health workers. Lancet. 2007;369(9579):2121–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60325-0.
Mohanan P, Jain A, Kotian M, NK V. Are the anganwadi workers healthy and happy? A cross sectional study using the general health questionnaire (GHQ 12) at Mangalore, India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2012;6(7):1151–4.
Ramachandran D, Canny J, Das PD, Cutrell E. Mobile-izing health Workers in Rural India. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems; 2010. p. 1889–98.
Sharma R, Webster P, Bhattacharyya S. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective. Glob Health Action. 2014;7:1.
Nayak N, Saxena NC. Implementation of ICDS in Bihar and Jharkhand. Econ Polit Wkly. 2006;41(34):3680–4 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4418617.
Singh P, Masters WA. Impact of caregiver incentives on child health: evidence from an experiment with Anganwadi workers in India. J Health Econ. 2017;55:219–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2017.07.005.
National Research Council. Time-use measurement and research: report of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2000. https://doi.org/10.17226/9866.
Melberg A, Diallo AH, Storeng KT, Tylleskär T, Moland KM. Policy, paperwork and ‘postographs’: global indicators and maternity care documentation in rural Burkina Faso. Soc Sci Med. 2018;215:28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.001.