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Table 5 Changes over time in 8 countries where two country situational analyses were done

From: Promoting quality use of medicines in South-East Asia: reports from country situational analyses

Country (Years of country situational analyses) % URTI cases treated with antibioticsa % patients treated with antibioticsa % medicines prescribed from the EMLa % medicines prescribed by generic namea % patients prescribed multivitaminsa % of patients prescribed injectionsa Average % better (+) medicines use over time (95% CI) Change in the number of policies implemented between the second and first situation analyses
Direction of better medicines use: More (+); Less (−) Less (−) Less (−) More (+) More (+) Less (−) Less (−) Sign (+/−) changed for QUM indicators where less use is better use so that “+” = better QUM
Bangladesh (2010, 2014)   −16.6       0
Bhutan (2011, 2015) −19.6 + 8.1 + 1.5 + 2.9 − 10.1 −3.7 + 4.9 (−2.4 to + 12.5) + 2
Maldives (2011, 2014) − 19.3 −13.8   + 19.3 + 22.8 + 5.6 + 4.8 (− 10.0 to + 19.6) + 3
Myanmar (2011, 2014) + 2.0 + 7.1 −7.6 + 11.3 + 13.7 + 4.0 − 3.8 (− 10.6 to + 2.9) + 4
Nepal (2011, 2014) − 6.3 −2.5 −0.04 −10.5 + 11.7 −3.7 − 1.6 (− 7.8 to + 4.5) 0
Sri Lanka (2010, 2015)   + 7.1 − 7.5 + 13.4 −7.8   + 1.7 (− 6.8 to + 10.1) + 2
Thailand (2012, 2015) −13.7 − 17.9 + 8.4 + 5.0 − 2.5 + 1.3 + 7.7 (+ 2.0 to + 13.4)** + 7
Timor-Leste (2012, 2015) −24.1 −13.7 −3.7 −6.4 − 17.9 + 0.1 + 7.6 (− 2.5 to + 17.7) −1
  1. aThe mean difference between the second and first situational analyses
  2. **p ≤ 0.05