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Table 5 The boundaries of processes

From: Using total quality management approach to improve patient safety by preventing medication error incidences**

Processes Goals Deficiencies
Prescribing Assessing the need for and select the right drug .individuals the therapeutic regimen - Illegibility
- Abbreviations
- Improper Dosing
- Dosing Errors
- Ordering medications to which patient was allergic
- Duplicate therapy
- Unclear/incomplete medication history
Dispensing Preparing the drug and providing it in timely manner - Labeling errors during repackaging
- Lack of access to the right medication at the right time
- Less control over inventory
- Poor/no audit trail
Administration Providing the right medication to the right patient when indicated - Wrong patient
- Wrong medication
- Wrong time
- Wrong dose
- Wrong route
Monitoring Monitoring of response and adverse events and evaluating of drug selection and regimen frequency and duration. - Failure to recognize adverse reactions
- Failure to report adverse reactions
- Failure to educate patients about potential side effects