Chronic Disease in Adults. AHRQ Focus on Research. AHRQ Publication No. 02-M026, March 2002. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD, [http://www.ahrq.gov/news/focus/chadult.htm]
Coye MJ: No Toyotas in health care: why medical care has not evolved to meet patients' needs. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001, 20 (6): 44-56. 10.1377/hlthaff.20.6.44.
National Committee for Quality Assurance: HEDIS 2000. 1999, Washington DC.: NCQA
Rubin HR, Kahn KL, Rubenstein LV, Sherwood MJ: Guidelines for Stuctured Implicit Review of the Quality of Hospital Care for Diverse Medical and surgical Complications. 1990, Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation
Rubenstein LV, Kahn KL, Reinisch EJ, Sherwood MJ, Rogers WH, Kamberg C, Draper D, Brook RH: Changes in quality of care for five diseases measured by implicit review, 1981 to 1986. JAMA. 1990, 264 (15): 1974-9. 10.1001/jama.264.15.1974.
Brennan TA, Leape LL, Laird NM, Hebert L, Localio AR, Lawthers AG, Newhouse JP, Weiler PC, Hiatt HH: Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients. Results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. N Engl J Med. 1991, 324 (6): 370-6.
Rubin HR, Rogers WH, Kahn KL, Rubenstein LV, Brook RH: Watching the doctor-watchers. How well do peer review organization methods detect hospital care quality problems?. JAMA. 1992, 267 (17): 2349-54. 10.1001/jama.267.17.2349.
Hayward RA, Bernard AM, Rosevear JS, Anderson JE, McMahon LF: An evaluation of generic screens for poor quality of hospital care on a general medicine service [see comments]. Med Care. 1993, 31 (5): 394-402.
Localio AR, Weaver SL, Landis JR, Lawthers AG, Brenhan TA, Hebert L, Sharp TJ: Identifying adverse events caused by medical care: degree of physician agreement in a retrospective chart review. Ann Intern Med. 1996, 125 (6): 457-64.
Smith MA, Atherly AJ, Kane RL, Pacala JT: Peer review of the quality of care. Reliability and sources of variability for outcome and process assessments. JAMA. 1997, 278 (19): 1573-8. 10.1001/jama.278.19.1573.
Ashton CM, Kuykendall DH, Johnson ML, Wray NP: An empirical assessment of the validity of explicit and implicit process-of-care criteria for quality assessment. Med Care. 1999, 37 (8): 798-808. 10.1097/00005650-199908000-00009.
Hayward RA, Hofer TP: Estimating hospital deaths due to medical errors: preventability is in the eye of the reviewer. JAMA. 2001, 286 (4): 415-20. 10.1001/jama.286.4.415.
Thomas EJ, Studdert DM, Brennan TA: The reliability of medical record review for estimating adverse event rates. Ann Intern Med. 2002, 136 (11): 812-6.
Kosecoff J, Kahn KL, Rogers WH, Reinisch EJ, Sherwood MJ, Rubenstein LV, Draper D, Roth CP, Chew C, Brook RH: Prospective payment system and impairment at discharge. The 'quicker- and-sicker' story revisited. JAMA. 1990, 264 (15): 1980-3. 10.1001/jama.264.15.1980.
Jencks SF, Cuerdon T, Burwen DR, Fleming B, Houck PM, Kussmaul AE, Nilasena DS, Ordin DL, Arday DR: Quality of medical care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries: A profile at state and national levels. JAMA. 2000, 284 (13): 1670-6. 10.1001/jama.284.13.1670.
Conditions of Participation (CoPs), Conditions for Coverage (CfCs), Quality Improvement System for Managed Care (QISMC), Year. 2000, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Washington DC, 2000 Jul 26, [http://www.cms.hhs.gov/cop/2d1.asp] Standards and Guidelines
Lindrooth RC, Calhoun EA, Welshman EE, Budetti PP: Peer Review at Teaching Hospitals: Results from a National Survey. Journal of Quality Health Care. 2002, 1 (2): 16-9.
Sifner TA: Establishing a Peer Review Process. Journal of Quality Health Care. 2002, 1 (2): 31-2.
Goldman RL: The reliability of peer assessments of quality of care. JAMA. 1992, 267 (7): 958-60. 10.1001/jama.267.7.958.
Hayward RA, McMahon LF, Bernard AM: Evaluating the care of general medicine inpatients: how good is implicit review?. Ann Intern Med. 1993, 118 (7): 550-6.
Pearson ML, Lee JL, Chang BL, Elliott M, Kahn KL, Rubenstein LV: Structured implicit review: a new method for monitoring nursing care quality. Med Care. 2000, 38 (11): 1074-91.
Chang BL, Lee JL, Pearson ML, Kahn KL, Elliott MN, Rubenstein LL: Evaluating quality of nursing care: the gap between theory and practice. J Nurs Adm. 2002, 32 (7–8): 405-18.
Bravo G, Potvin L: Estimating the reliability of continuous measures with Cronbach's alpha or the intraclass correlation coefficient: toward the integration of two traditions. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991, 44 (4–5): 381-90.
Longford NT: Reliability of essay rating and score adjustment. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. 1994, 19 (3): 171-200.
Brennan RL: Generalizability theory. 2001, New York: Springer
McDowell I, Newell C: Measuring Health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaires. 1996, New York: Oxford University Press, 2
Broder MS, Oken C, Parker M, Giammona M, Newman J, Harrington C, et al: Outpatient Care: A Conceptual Framework and a Form for Structured Implicit Review. 2002, Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation
Hofer TP, Hayward RA, Greenfield S, Wagner EH, Kaplan SH, Manning WG: The unreliability of individual physician "report cards" for assessing the costs and quality of care of a chronic disease. JAMA. 1999, 281 (22): 2098-105. 10.1001/jama.281.22.2098.
Sixma HJ, Spreeuwenberg PM, van der Pasch MA: Patient satisfaction with the general practitioner: a two-level analysis. Med Care. 1998, 36 (2): 212-29. 10.1097/00005650-199802000-00010.
Krein SL, Hofer TP, Kerr EA, Hayward RA: Whom should we profile? Examining diabetes care practice variation among primary care providers, provider groups, and health care facilities. Health Serv Res. 2002, 37 (5): 1159-80. 10.1111/1475-6773.01102.
Casalino LP: The unintended consequences of measuring quality on the quality of medical care. N Engl J Med. 1999, 341 (15): 1147-50. 10.1056/NEJM199910073411511.
Gauging quality regulation's impact on premium costs. Medicine & Health. 1997, 51 (46): 1.
Hofer TP, Bernstein SJ, DeMonner S, Hayward RA: Discussion between reviewers does not improve reliability of peer review of hospital quality. Med Care. 2000, 38 (2): 152-61. 10.1097/00005650-200002000-00005.
Browne WJ: MCMC Estimation in MLwiN. 2002, London: Centre for Multilevel Modeling, Institute of Education, University of London, Version 1.0
Fleiss JL: Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 1981, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 212-36. 2