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Table 3 Meta-analysis of primary and secondary outcomes of group-based diabetes self-management education programme with comparison for intervention (Int) and control (contr) groups and the heterogeneity (measured by I 2 ) of the analyses

From: Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

Analysis number / Outcome Effect measure N studies N participants (Int/contr) Difference (95%CI) P-valueA Hetero-geneity (I2)
3.1 Glycated haemoglobin (6 months) Mean Diff 13 977/850 -0.44 (-0.69 to -0.19) 0.001 55.8
3.2 Glycated haemoglobin (12 months) Mean Diff 11 750/753 -0.46 (-0.74 to -0.18) 0.001 64.6
3.3 Glycated haemoglobin (2 years) Mean Diff 3 199/198 -0.87 (-1.25 to -0.49) 0.000 0.0
3.4 Fasting blood glucose (6 months) Mean Diff 3 206/195 -0.73 (-2.22 to 0.76) 0.336 68.1
3.5 Fasting blood glucose (12 months) Mean Diff 5 344/346 -1.26 (-1.69 to -0.83) 0.000 0.0
3.6 Diabetes knowledge (6 months) Std Mean Diff 6 390/378 0.69 (0.43 to 0.96) 0.000 63.5
3.7 Diabetes knowledge (12 months) Std Mean Diff 5 477/478 0.85 (0.48 to 1.22) 0.000 85.5
3.8 Self management skills (6 months) Std Mean Diff 4 295/239 0.55 (0.11 to 0.99) 0.015 79.1
3.9 Quality of life (6 months) Std Mean Diff 3 242/231 0.31 (-0.15 to 0.78) 0.186 77.1
3.10 Self efficacy/Empowerment (6 months) Std Mean Diff 2 167/159 0.28 (0.06 to 0.50) 0.012 0.0
3.11 Weight (6 months) Mean Diff 3 216/217 -2.08 (-5.55 to 1.39) 0.239 48.2
3.12 Body Mass Index (6 months) Mean Diff 7 633/526 -0.21 (-0.86 to 0.43) 0.514 0.0
3.13 Weight (12 months) Mean Diff 4 247/245 -1.66 (-3.07 to -0.25) 0.021 0.0
3.14 Body Mass Index (12 months) Mean Diff 7 538/554 -0.22 (-1.13 to 0.69) 0.634 62.2
3.15 Systolic blood pressure (6 months) Mean Diff 5 454/360 -0.34 (-5.19 to 4.51) 0.891 67.9
3.16 Diastolic blood pressure (6 months) Mean Diff 5 454/360 -0.46 (-2.31 to 1.39) 0.627 26.6
3.17 Systolic blood pressure (12 months) Mean Diff 2 168/159 -2.61 (-6.74 to 1.52) 0.216 0.0
3.18 Total cholesterol (6 months) Mean Diff 7 632/529 -0.04 (-0.17 to 0.10) 0.605 0.0
3.19 Triglycerides (6 months) Mean Diff 7 632/529 -0.16 (-0.35 to 0.03) 0.104 0.0
3.20 Total cholesterol (12 months) Mean Diff 4 324/332 0.07 (-0.09 to 0.24) 0.377 0.0
3.21 Triglycerides (12 months) Mean Diff 4 325/332 0.03 (-0.42 to 0.48) 0.883 79.7
3.22 High density lipoprotein (6 months) Mean Diff 6 515/417 0.02 (-0.05 to 0.08) 0.623 0.0
3.23 Low density lipoprotein (6 months) Mean Diff 6 515/417 -0.05 (-0.20 to 0.10) 0.528 0.0
3.24 Treatment satisfaction (6 months) Std Mean Diff 2 205/185 0.65 (0.44 to 0.85) 0.000 0.0
3.25 Treatment satisfaction (12 months) Std Mean Diff 3 247/237 0.39 (0.21 to 0.57) 0.000 0.0
3.26 Death Odds Ratio 4 351/349 1.10 (0.37 to 3.29) 0.867 3.2
  1. A. The P- value is calculated for the difference between the intervention and control group.