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Table 4 Adjusted Associations between PCP and specialty visits and ACSC hospitalization among urban and rural dual eligibles age 65 and over with diabetes or CHF

From: The association between primary care use and potentially-preventable hospitalization among dual eligibles age 65 and over

Variable Diabetes CHF
Urban Rural Urban Rural
N (person-years) 3,819,765 782,184 2,131,443 530,800
PCP visits −0.061*** (0.003) − 0.034*** (0.007) −0.112*** (0.004) − 0.0462*** (0.001)
Outpatient specialist visits −0.061*** (0.002) − 0.137*** (0.007) −0.122*** (0.003) − 0.275*** (0.009)
Age 0.035*** (0.002) 0.008 (0.005) −0.049*** (0.004) −0.073*** (0.007)
Male −0.360*** (0.036) 0.297*** (0.089) −0.888*** (0.063) 0.022 (0.138)
Race/Ethnicity
 Black 2.496*** (0.057) −0.436*** (0.148) 3.487*** (0.092) −0.583** (0.227)
 Asian/Pacific Islander −0.335*** (0.050) −0.942*** (0.350) 0.696*** (0.111) −0.185 (0.886)
 AI/AN 1.700*** (0.248) 1.364*** (0.291) 2.883*** (0.473) 2.685*** (0.512)
 Hispanic 1.155*** (0.051) −0.079 (0.192) 2.407*** (0.098) 0.813** (0.375)
 Other −0.632*** (0.128) −0.307 (0.608) − 0.464* (0.237) −1.115 (1.062)
Chronic Conditions
 2–3 conditions 0.685*** (0.022) 1.182*** (0.069) 2.102*** (0.125) 2.463*** (0.359)
 4–6 conditions 3.311*** (0.027) 4.894*** (0.080) 6.982*** (0.121) 8.516*** (0.350)
 7–9 conditions 11.490*** (0.042) 15.990*** (0.112) 16.860*** (0.125) 20.310*** (0.356)
 10+ conditions 30.280*** (0.073) 37.270*** (0.173) 35.170*** (0.136) 39.550*** (0.376)
Disability Status
 With Disability 1.136*** (0.044) 0.171 (0.091) 1.187*** (0.076) −0.081 (0.143)
Year
 2014 −0.514*** (0.045) − 0.713*** (0.112) −0.688*** (0.078) − 0.801*** (0.169)
 2015 −1.227*** (0.048) −1.664*** (0.115) −1.539*** (0.082) −2.283*** -(0.175)
 2016 −1.294*** (0.048) −2.035*** (0.117) −1.415*** (0.083) − 2.255*** (0.178)
 2017 −1.346*** (0.048) −2.288*** (0.118) − 1.200*** (0.085) − 2.490*** (0.181)
 2018 − 1.648*** (0.049) − 2.738*** (0.121) − 1.661*** (0.085) −3.272*** (0.184)
 Constant − 2.499*** (0.181) 0.702 (0.431) 4.181*** (0.317) 9.079*** (0.709)
  1. Note: CHF = Congestive Heart Failure. Reference categories are female, non-Hispanic White, 1 chronic condition, and year 2013. Coefficients are interpreted as percentage point changes with probability of outcome scaled from 0 to 100. For example, the coefficient of − 0.061 for PCP visits among urban dual eligibles with diabetes means that each PCP visit is associated with a lower probability of ACSC hospitalization by 0.061 percentage points
  2. **p < 0.05
  3. ***p < 0.01, Robust standard errors in parentheses