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Table 2 Adjusted associations between PCP and specialty visits and ACSC hospitalization among urban and rural dual eligibles age 65 and over

From: The association between primary care use and potentially-preventable hospitalization among dual eligibles age 65 and over

Variable Urban Rural
N (person-years) 8,562,571 1,894,368
PCP visits − 0.059*** (0.002) − 0.026*** (0.005)
Outpatient specialist visits −0.067*** (0.002) − 0.146*** (0.004)
Age 0.037*** (0.001) 0.025*** (0.003)
Male −0.138*** (0.021) 0.336*** (0.050)
Race/Ethnicity
 Black 1.599*** (0.034) −0.827*** (0.088)
 Asian/Pacific Islander −0.707*** (0.028) −0.787*** (0.192)
AI/AN 1.215*** (0.147) 0.864*** (0.173)
 Hispanic 0.399*** (0.029) −0.471*** (0.108)
 Other −0.795*** (0.080) −0.539 (0.333)
Chronic Conditions
 1–3 conditions 1.129*** (0.011) 1.606*** (0.030)
 4–6 conditions 4.149*** (0.017) 5.815*** (0.044)
 7–9 conditions 12.130*** (0.031) 16.440*** (0.074)
 10+ conditions 29.970*** (0.060) 36.280*** (0.136)
Disability Status
 With Disability 1.106*** (0.026) 0.371*** (0.053)
Year
 2014 −0.339*** (0.027) −0.566*** (0.063)
 2015 −0.646*** (0.028) −1.242*** (0.065)
 2016 −0.508*** (0.028) −1.292*** (0.066)
 2017 −0.689*** (0.028) −1.459*** (0.066)
 2018 −0.949*** (0.028) −1.830*** (0.067)
 Constant −2.564*** (0.101) −0.739*** (0.230)
  1. Note: Reference categories are female, non-Hispanic White, 0 chronic conditions, and year 2013. Coefficients are interpreted as percentage point changes with probability of outcome scaled from 0 to 100. For example, the coefficient of − 0.059 for PCP visits among urban dual eligibles means that each PCP visit is associated with a decrease in risk of ACSC hospitalization by 0.059 percentage points
  2. **p < 0.05
  3. ***p < 0.01, Robust standard errors in parentheses