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Table 2 Characteristics of the terrorist attacks and the health systems in Norway, France and Belgium. References are reported in the results

From: Psychosocial care responses to terrorist attacks: a country case study of Norway, France and Belgium

  Norway France Belgium
Characteristics of the terrorist attacks Oslo and Utøya attacks 22 July 2011 Paris attacks 13 November 2015 Brussels attacks 22 March 2016
Total number of fatalities (except perpetrators) 77 130 32
Number of fatalities in children (<  18 years old) 33 1 0
Reported number of physically injureda 172 493 340
Type of attack(s) and location(s) - Bombing at government quarter in city centre (8 deaths). - Suicide bombings outside football stadium (1 death). - Two suicide bombings at airport (12 deaths).
- Shooting at youth Labor party camp on small island (69 deaths). - Hostage, shooting and suicide bombings at theatre concert (90 deaths). - One suicide bombing at metro station in city centre (20 deaths).
  - Shootings and suicide bombings at bars/restaurants in four locations (39 deaths).  
Characteristics of the health systems    
Expenditure funded by public sources 85% 77% 77%
General practitioners (GPs) and gatekeeping of specialized mental health services Gatekeeping system: The GPs are important providers of mental care and refer patients to specialized care when necessary. If patients consult a psychiatrist or psychologist without referral, they must pay full fees. Since a reform in 2001, over 99% of the population had a regular GP. Semi-gatekeeping system: Provides incentives to consult a regular GP before a specialist. Patients who consult a psychiatrist without referral must pay a larger part of but not the entire fees. A study in 2007 indicated that 83% of the population had a regular GP. No gatekeeping system: GPs do not serve as gatekeepers. Incentives have been made to promote their role in healthcare, e.g. increased reimbursement for first visit to a psychiatrist, and only reimbursement of psychologist consultation if referred by a GP or other physician. In a national health survey in 2008, almost 95% reported having a regular GP.
Main responsibility of organizing post-disaster psychosocial care Local municipalities Regional health agencies Split responsibility: Federal authorities in the acute and local authorities in the post-acute phase
  1. aDiscrepant numbers reported in different sources. It is often unclear how physical injury has been defined and measured. Therefore, the numbers may not be comparable across attacks/countries