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Table 2 Client-reported RMC and mistreatment during childbirth in three hospitals

From: An exploratory study of client and provider experience and perceptions of facility-based childbirth care in Quiché, Guatemala

  Hospital #1 Hospital #2 Hospital #3 Total p-value
N = 36 N = 68 N = 36 N = 140  
n(%) n(%) n(%) n(%)  
Respectful Care (Positive Care Attributes)
 Was allowed to have desired companion in labora1 25 (69.4) 1 (1.5) 1(2.8) 27 (19.3) p = .001
 Was allowed to have desired companion during deliverya2 16 (44.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.8) 17 (12.1) p = .009
 Was covered with a cloth or blanket so did not feel exposeda 23 (63.9) 49 (72.1) 14 (38.9) 86 (61.4) p = .020
 Health worker treated her with respecta 34 (94.4) 52 (76.5) 27 (75.0) 113 (80.7) p = .052
 Staff were kind and friendly 28 (77.8) 43 (63.2) 17 (47.2) 88 (62.9) p = .255
 Staff helped manage pain 30 (83.3) 49 (72.1) 31 (86.1) 110 (78.6) p = .425
 Health workers did everything they could to help her be more comfortable 32 (88.9) 53 (77.9) 31 (86.1) 116 (82.9) p = .609
 Health workers took the best care of her in the way that they coulda 30 (83.3) 58 (85.3) 31 (86.1) 119 (85.0) p = .978
 Health workers paid attention if she asked for helpa 29 (80.6) 36 (52.9) 25 (69.4) 90 (64.3) p = .057
 Health workers spoke to you in a language that you speaka 31 (86.1) 66 (97.1) 35 (97.2) 132 (94.3) P = .617
 Health workers provided explanations for exams or procedures or why they gave you medicine 18 (50.0) 39 (57.4) 27 (75.0) 84 (60.0) p = .163
 Health workers asked for consent before doing exams, procedures, or giving medicinea 15 (41.7) 55 (80.9) 29 (80.6) 99 (70.7) p = .002
 Health workers explained what was happening and what to expecta 25 (69.4) 10 (14.7) 13 (36.1) 48 (34.3) p = .001
 She felt she could ask questions about her carea 26 (72.2) 38 (55.9) 26 (72.2) 90 (64.3) p < .001
 Mean positive score (SD) 10.2 (2.5) 8.5 (3.2) 10.1 (3.5) 9.4 (3.2) p = 0.817
Mistreatment (Negative Care Attributes)
 She was treated roughly physically by health providersa 1 (2.8) 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.4) p = .980
 She experienced verbal abuse (shouting, insulting, scolding, being made fun of) a 4 (11.1) 21 (30.9) 5 (13.9) 30 (21.4) p = .169
 She was restrained so she couldn’t move 1 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) p = .970
 Health workers asked for money or informal payment for better care 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) p = 1.000
 Downward pressure placed on her abdomen before baby was born 8 (22.2) 2 (2.9) 12 (33.3) 22 (15.7) p = .029
 Staff said she or her baby would not be healthy if she did not comply 2 (5.6) 4 (5.9) 2 (5.6) 8 (5.7) p = .994
 Health worker or staff made negative comments about her sexual activity 1 (2.8) 1 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.4) p = .980
 She was sexually harassed or was touched inappropriately 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) p = 1.000
 Health workers discussed her private information so that others could heara 1 (2.8) 22 (32.5) 1 (2.8) 24 (17.1) p = .010
 She gave birth without a health worker helping her 1 (2.8) 1 (1.5) 2 (5.6) 4 (2.9) p = .943
 Mean negative score (SD) 0.72 (1.6) 0.98 (0.80) 0.64 (0.80) 0.83 (1.22) p = .698
  1. aItem from PCMC scale developed by Afulani and colleagues [5]