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Table 4 Multivariable Logistic Mixed Effects Model, Patient Characteristics (2003–2009)

From: Hospital market concentration and the use of mechanical circulatory support devices in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock

Variable Odds Ratio Confidence interval p-value
PRIMARY EXPOSURE VARIABLE
Herfindal-Hirschman Index (variable radius 75%) 0.91 0.76–1.10 0.34
COVARIATES OF INTEREST
Age 0.98 0.98–0.99 < 0.01
Female 0.76 0.72–0.80 < 0.01
Race
White (reference) REF REF REF
Black 0.79 0.69–0.89 < 0.01
Hispanic 0.98 0.87–1.10 0.77
Asian or Pacific Islander 1.18 0.98–1.41 0.08
Native American 1.04 0.71–1.51 0.85
Other / Unknown 1.06 0.98–1.15 0.14
Hospital Bedsize
Small (reference) REF REF REF
Medium 0.98 0.82–1.16 0.79
Large 1.04 0.89–1.23 0.61
Hospital Control
Government or private, collapsed (reference) REF REF REF
Government, nonfederal, public 0.88 0.68–1.13 0.31
Private, non-profit, voluntary 0.87 0.74–1.02 0.08
Private, invest-own 0.99 0.83–1.17 0.87
Private, collapsed 0.96 0.66–1.39 0.83
Teaching Hospital 0.93 0.81–1.06 0.28
Urban 0.96 0.74–1.24 0.77
Procedures
Left heart catherization 5.07 4.74–5.43 < 0.01
Percutaneous coronary intervention 2.62 2.46–2.79 < 0.01
Coronary artery bypass graft 4.34 4.03–4.68 < 0.01
Comorbid Conditions
Congestive heart failure 1.25 1.19–1.33 < 0.01
Valvular disease 1.14 1.07–1.22 < 0.01
Peripheral vascular disease 0.70 0.64–0.76 < 0.01
Neurologic disease 0.74 0.65–0.83 < 0.01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0.76 0.71–0.81 < 0.01
Diabetes mellitus, uncomplicated 1.09 1.02–1.17 < 0.01
Chronic kidney disease 0.83 0.77–0.90 < 0.01
Liver disease 0.76 0.59–0.98 0.03
Coagulopathy 1.44 1.31–1.57 < 0.01
Fluid and electrolyte disorders 1.09 1.03–1.15 < 0.01
Hypertension 0.88 0.83–0.93 < 0.01