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Table 2 Summary of the Final Included Studies

From: The deployment of balanced scorecard in health care organizations: is it beneficial? A systematic review

Author/s, year of publication Country Design of the study Duration of data collection Setting No. of health facilities No. of participants Data collection tool/ data sources
Harber, 1998 [26] Canada Experimental
uncontrolled pretest-posttest
NR Peel Memorial Hospital (Hospital in general + Laboratory) 1 NR NR
Meliones, 2000 [5] The USA- North Carolina Experimental
uncontrolled Interrupted time series
1996–2000 Duke Children Hospital 1 NR NR
Pink et al., 2001 [27] Canada Observational prospective longitudinal 1997–1998 Markham Stouffville hospital 1 NR Surveys + hospitals’ reports
Gumbus et al., 2003 [28] USA Case Study/ observational retrospective longitudinal 1999–2001 Bridge port hospital 1 NR The patient satisfaction measurement system
Smith & Kim, 2005 [29] USA Observational prospective and retrospective longitudinal 2001–2004 Summa’s Food & Nutrition Service Department at Summa Health System (STH & ACH hospitals) 2 NR Press Ganey’s standard inpatient survey + audit checklists
Devitt et al., 2005 [30] Canada Observational prospective and retrospective longitudinal 2004–2005 Toronto East General Hospital 1 NR Data extraction from hospital records
Yang & Tung, 2006 [31] Taiwan Retrospective longitudinal/ observational 2000–2002 General hospitals & their supervisor agency 21 NR Secondary data from the department of health + primary data structured questionnaire measuring hospitals’ organizational learning and growth perspective
Lorden et al., 2008 [32] NR Multimethod quantitative and qualitative case study/ experimental
uncontrolled Interrupted time series
Jan, 1998- June, 2004 Community hospital 1 300 Inpatient/quarter, 700 outpatient/quarter, 227 employees (1st survey), 191 employees (2nd survey) Employee satisfaction survey + patient satisfaction survey (via email)
Josey & Kim, 2008 [33] USA-Ohio Observational retrospective longitudinal 2006 Barberton Citizens hospital (BCH) 1 NR Patient satisfaction survey
Chang et al., 2008 [34] Taiwan Observational retrospective longitudinal 2001–2005 Mackay Memorial Hospital 1 NR NR
Hansen et al., 2008 [24] Afghanistan Observational retrospective longitudinal July to October of (2004/2005/2006) Health facilities > 600 1700 HCWs, 5800 patients- provider interaction NR
Chu et al., 2009 [35] Tawian Case study/ experimental
uncontrolled Interrupted time series
2004–2006 The nursing department at a public teaching hospital in Taiwan 1 13 reference nurses’ group Financial data from hospital + questionnaires to executives (the weights of indicators)
Edward et al., 2011 [36] Afghanistan Observational retrospective longitudinal 2004–2008 Health facilities in Afghanistan 700 1500 HCWs, 5000 patients National health services performance Assessment + interviews with patients and HCWs
Fields & Cohen, 2011 [37] USA Experimental uncontrolled Interrupted time series 2009–2010 Oregon Health and science university family medicine (Clinics) 1 NR Press Ganey survey for patient satisfaction + medical records.
Koumpouros, 2013 [38] Greece Case study/ experimental uncontrolled Interrupted time series 18 months but not specified when exactly General Panarcadian Hospital of Tripolis 1 NR Questionnaires and interviews
Smith et al., 2014 [39] Canada/ Alberta Experimental
uncontrolled pretest-posttest
2010–2011 (12-month trial), March 31, 2013 (results) Hospitals in Alberta including hip and knee surgeries 12 NR NR
Abdullah et al., 2014 [40] Indonesia Cross-sectional/observational prospective and retrospective longitudinal April–December, 2013 Cibto Mangunkusumo Hospital- Digestive endoscopy center 1 76 patients Endoscopy reports + interviews based on structured questionnaires
Mutale et al., 2014 [25, 41] Zambia Cluster randomized intervention/ experimental RCT 2011–2013 Health facilities in Zambia 12 96 HCWs, 429 patient interviews, 410 patient observations A survey in facilities+ interviews with HCWs and patients + patient observation + survey with households
Catuogno et al., 2017 [42] Italy Case study/ Experimental uncontrolled pretest-posttest 2007–2008, & 2014–2015 Hematology department at a Research hospital in Italy 1 14 Stakeholder satisfaction; questionnaires + care processes + hospital discharge report + charity report + research process + departmental report + economic and financial; hospital discharge database + departmental report + charity report
Widyasari & Adi, 2019 [43] Indonesia Descriptive Quantitative longitudinal/observational prospective and retrospective During the year 2018 Bali Mandara Hospital of Bali (Governmental hospital) 1 30 Participant observation + structured interviews + semi-structured interviews + documentation.
  1. Note: NR Not Reported, HCWs Health Care Workers. Italic are designs based on our classification but not reported.