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Table 1 Codebook developed to apply AACTT framework to analysis of the practice standards

From: Do pharmacy practice standards effectively describe behaviour? Reviewing practice standards using a behavioural specificity framework

Criteria* AACTT Criteria original definition [23] AACTT Criteria adjusted definition Allocated codes and definitions Examples from Professional Practice Standards for Australian Pharmacists
ACTION
Is an action specified per the review definition?
A discrete observable behaviour that needs to change, in terms that can be observed or measured. A discrete observable behaviour…in terms that can be observed or measured.
(Assess with Table 2)
Discrete action: A single self-contained action without consideration to whether there are ancillary actions that may precede or proceed on from that single self-contained action. A non-discrete action may be the result of a series of discrete actions (e.g. the dispensing process or the medicine reconciliation process) though were considered non-discrete if it is stated without further description of the process. The assessment of whether the action is discrete includes an assessment of whether the reader is provided with the full details of the action or expected to bring pre-existing knowledge to interpret the action in a consistent manner.
Observable action: Specified as an externally visible manifestation and/or the direct outcome of the action would be a physical object. Non-observable actions are those where there is no external physical sign that an action is performed.
Yes - There is an action(s) that is/are discrete and observable in the statement.
No - There is no discrete and observable action(s) present in the statement.
Example Yes: ‘Obtains informed consent before delivery of services’
Example No: ‘Supports principles of equity in the delivery of healthcare services’
ACTION*
Reference to another document or guideline
Is there reference to another guideline or document in the action statement?
  Additional criterion added by research team. Yes - One or more guidelines or documents are mentioned in the statement.
No - No guidelines or documents are mentioned in the statement.
Example Yes: Understands and upholds relevant codes of ethics and codes of conduct.
Example No: ‘Provides a setting for information exchange and service delivery that is appropriate to the patient.’
ACTION*
Referenced guideline named and accessible
If there is reference to another guideline or document. Is it clear what the document/guideline is and how it can be accessed?
  Additional criterion added by research team. Yes - Guideline or document has been explicitly named and where it can be accessed in the statement.
No -The guideline has not been explicitly named and where to access it has not been specified in the document.
MIN -The guideline or document has been explicitly named OR how to access it is stated but not both.
Example Yes: ‘Facilitates proactive referral and follow-up, as required. See Appendix 3: Template referral letter.’
Example No: ‘Uses equipment for complex compounding that meets relevant Australian Standards’
Example MIN: ‘This may include: preparation details (refer to ‘Extemporaneous dispensing’ in the current edition of Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary and Handbook)’
ACTOR
Is actor(s) specified per the review definition?
The individual or group of individuals who perform (or should/could) the Action. The individual or group of individuals who perform (or should/could) the Action. Yes -Explicitly names the person OR persons responsible for performing the action.
No - No one is explicitly named to perform the action OR assumptions of responsible person need to made to interpret.
Example Yes: ‘The accredited pharmacist …’
Example No: ‘Self’ or ‘own’
CONTEXT
Is context specified per the review definition?
The physical location, emotional or social setting in which the Actor performs (or should/ could) the Action. The physical location, emotional or social setting in which the Actor performs (or should/ could) the Action. Yes - A location/context for the action has been explicitly named.
No -A location/context has not been named OR assumptions need to be made to interpret the context.
MIN -A location/context has been named but there could be multiple OR a reference to location/context is made but more information would be needed to interpret OR when nonspecific terms are used to refer to the context that could have multiple meanings and have not been predefined
Example Yes: ‘Records in the dispensing history or patient healthcare plan and on the medicine label when initial brand substitution occurs.’
Example No:’ Undertakes a risk analysis before implementing services.’
Example MIN: ‘service environment’ or ‘workplace’
TARGET
Is target(s) specified per the review definition?
The individual or group of individuals for/ with/ on behalf of whom the Actor performs the Action. The individual or group of individuals for/ with/ on behalf of whom the Actor performs the Action. Yes -An individual or group that the action is with/for AND on behalf of is named.
No - No individual or group that the action is with/for AND on behalf of is specified OR assumptions need to be made to interpret who the target is.
MIN -When a reference to target is made but more information would be needed to interpret which specific individuals are the target OR one of with/for/behalf of is missing and shouldn’t be.
NN - The action doesn’t require a target OR the target is also the actor.
Example Yes: ‘with the patient’ or ‘discusses with the prescriber’
Example No: ‘Communicates the evidence for the use of therapeutic goods clearly and transparently.’
Example MIN: ‘Others’ or ‘staff’ or ‘team’ or ‘healthcare professionals’ (could be more specific eg. Pharmacy assistants or compounding technicians or prescriber, dentist, physiotherapist)
Example NN: ‘Self-assess own knowledge and skills’
TIME
Is time specified per the review definition?
The time period and duration that the Actor performs the Action in the Context with/for the Target. The time period and duration that the Actor performs the Action in the Context with/for the Target. (For this study the research team will also consider where time is dependent on a set of circumstances if these have been explicitly stated.) Yes - Time period and duration if relevant and explicitly specified OR if states the situation when the action should occur.
No -No time period or duration is specified, OR assumptions were made about them.
MIN - When a reference to time is made but more information would be needed to interpret or assumptions would need to be made to interpret OR duration and/or frequency are present but not both.
Example Yes: ‘Before supply of medication’ or ‘all mentoring opportunities’ or ‘when services are provided or refused’
Example No: ‘Stores records safely, securely and in a dedicated location’
Example MIN: ‘Timely’ or ‘regularly’ or ‘maintains’ or ‘as required’
  1. MIN More Information Needed
  2. NN Not needed
  3. *Additional criteria added by research team