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Table 4 Predictors of perceiving barriers to sexual and reproductive health services

From: Adolescents’ perceived barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health services in California: a cross-sectional survey

  Test results
(N = 9,008)
Cost of service
(N = 9,036)
Confidentiality of service
(N = 9,013)
5 or more barriers
(N = 9,167)
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Gender
 Male Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Female 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 0.266 1.10 (1.00, 1.20) 0.045 1.48 (1.35, 1.61) < 0.001 1.68 (1.49, 1.88) < 0.001
 Transgender/non-binary/multiple genders 0.82 (0.56, 1.21) 0.316 1.89 (1.24, 2.88) 0.003 1.51 (1.01, 2.24) 0.044 2.38 (1.55, 3.63) < 0.001
Age (continuous) 0.90 (0.87, 0.93) < 0.001 0.96 (0.93, 0.99) 0.016 0.90 (0.87, 0.93) < 0.001 0.84 (0.81, 0.88) < 0.001
Sexual orientation
 Straight/heterosexual Reference Reference Reference Reference
 LGBQ+ 1.21 (1.07, 1.37) 0.002 1.36 (1.20, 1.54) < 0.001 1.24 (1.10, 1.41) 0.001 1.42 (1.22, 1.64) < 0.001
Ethnicity/race
 Hispanic Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Non-Hispanic
  White 0.76 (0.65, 0.88) < 0.001 0.91 (0.78, 1.06) 0.238 0.82 (0.70, 0.96) 0.012 1.01 (0.83, 1.23) 0.899
  Black 0.88 (0.72, 1.08) 0.224 0.65 (0.53, 0.81) < 0.001 0.77 (0.62, 0.95) 0.015 0.66 (0.48, 0.90) 0.009
  Asian/Pacific Islander/ Native Hawaiian 1.68 (1.34, 2.11) < 0.001 1.37 (1.09, 1.72) 0.006 1.14 (0.91, 1.42) 0.262 1.82 (1.42, 2.33) < 0.001
  American Indian/Alaska Native 1.28 (0.87, 1.89) 0.213 0.76 (0.52, 1.12) 0.167 0.73 (0.50, 1.08) 0.119 1.02 (0.62, 1.68) 0.930
  Multiple 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) 0.954 0.75 (0.59, 0.95) 0.018 0.93 (0.73, 1.18) 0.547 0.69 (0.49, 0.98) 0.036
Living situation
 Stable housing Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Foster care 1.27 (1.05, 1.53) 0.013 1.02 (0.84, 1.23) 0.854 0.92 (0.76, 1.11) 0.378 0.85 (0.66, 1.10) 0.210
 Juvenile justice facility 0.87 (0.68, 1.11) 0.260 0.58 (0.45, 0.76) < 0.001 0.42 (0.32, 0.55) < 0.001 0.47 (0.29, 0.76) 0.002
 Unstable housing 1.13 (0.83, 1.53) 0.430 1.41 (1.04, 1.91) 0.027 1.12 (0.83, 1.52) 0.450 1.06 (0.71, 1.58) 0.768
Ever had vaginal and/or anal sex
 No Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 0.93 (0.84, 1.04) 0.216 0.80 (0.71, 0.89) < 0.001 0.91 (0.82, 1.02) 0.101 0.78 (0.67, 0.91) 0.001
  1. Note: Odds ratios are based on mixed-effects logit models, accounting for the nested structure of the data (participants within cohorts and cohorts within agencies)