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Table 4 The impacts of UZMDP on inpatient services utilization and expenditures (DID model)

From: Did the universal zero-markup drug policy lower healthcare expenditures? Evidence from Changde, China

  Inpatient admissions Aggregate Drug Diagnosis Laboratory Medical consumables
  Estimatea Se Estimate Se Estimate Se Estimate Se Estimate Se Estimate Se
Intercept 0.772*** 0.025 18,479.543*** 912.982 3,029.000*** 444.800 -4,057.000*** 174.200 -748.076*** 49.682 -1,762.000*** 124.500
UZMDP adoption 0.089*** 0.020 2,500.827*** 755.767 -4,349.000*** 368.100 417.100** 143.900 122.984** 41.621 117.300 104.700
Year -0.126*** 0.016 -3,040.138*** 634.838 7,141.000*** 310.200 131.500 124.000 24.121 35.803 149.700 90.370
Group -0.390*** 0.014 -4,523.301*** 535.535 -501.500 262.700 3,056.000*** 102.900 1,294.083*** 29.719 1,768.000*** 75.070
Age (year) 0.002*** 0.000 69.153*** 9.696 34.750*** 4.698 25.900*** 1.814 7.027*** 0.514 4.716*** 1.281
Annual income
 0 - 20,000 CNY REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
 20,000 - 40,000 CNY -0.006 0.015 -6,258.998*** 551.338 -2,835.000*** 266.800 -7.744 100.300 -89.806** 29.188 16.440 73.150
 40,000 - 60,000 CNY -0.010 0.018 -3,079.387*** 683.493 -946.800** 331.000 -526.300*** 125.100 -259.216*** 36.431 -211.400* 91.170
 ≥ 60,000 CNY -0.084*** 0.024 -3,511.692*** 866.390 -2,185.000*** 421.500 -157.800 158.900 -349.094*** 46.375 -132.500 115.700
Gender
 Female REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
 Male 0.066*** 0.010 2,592.978*** 351.871 851.200*** 170.600 218.900*** 64.320 86.178*** 18.654 39.780 46.610
Type of health insurance
 Residents REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF REF
 Employees 0.078*** 0.012 1,037.861* 451.458 655.200** 218.900 1,130.000*** 82.820 313.736*** 24.042 575.800*** 60.230
 Retired veteran cadres 0.284*** 0.047 12,443.604 1,899.796 4,975.000*** 915.400 2,916.000*** 342.200 699.456*** 99.731 579.300* 254.000
 Disabled soldiers 0.455 0.111 -7,875.390 4,778.139 -2,587.000 2,307.000 873.300 846.800 285.421 247.638 -795.800 644.600
 Regression diagnosticsb 0.000/1.000/0.000 0.021 0.002 0.004 0.012 0.003
  1. aSignificance codes: *** ≤ 0.001, ** ≤ 0.01, * ≤ 0.05
  2. bRegression diagnostics: the p-values of the Over-dispersion test, the Chi-squared test, and the Likelihood ratio test were reported for the healthcare utilization models, while the McFadden’s pseudo R2 was reported for the healthcare expenditures models