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Table 7 Comparison of demographic characteristics with awareness, expectation and satisfaction scores (n = 441)

From: Awareness, expectation and satisfaction towards ward pharmacy services among patients in medical wards: a multi-centre study in Perak, Malaysia

Variable Awareness Expectation Satisfaction
  Mean (SD) p-value Mean (SD) p-value Mean (SD) p-value
Age
  < 60 years 51.1 (7.44) < 0.001 44.4 (5.25) 0.098 44.1 (5.20) 0.009
 60 years and above 47.7 (8.19) 43.5 (4.97) 42.8 (5.43)
Admission events
 Nil 49.8 (7.90) 0.103 44.1 (5.35) 0.408 44.1 (5.29) 0.308
 1–2 48.9 (8.18) 43.7 (5.05) 43.1 (5.33)
 3–4 51.5 (6.75) 44.5 (5.22) 43.8 (5.40)
 5 or more 51.1 (7.97) 45.2 (4.63) 44.0 (5.46)
Gender
 Male 49.3 (8.12) 0.386 44.0 (5.14) 0.875 43.4 (5.59) 0.456
 Female 50.0 (7.73) 43.9 (5.15) 43.8 (4.99)
Ethnicity
 Malay 50.2 (7.46) 0.004 43.9 (5.05) 0.775 43.7 (5.03) 0.770
 Chinese 45.4 (10.26) 44.6 (5.72) 43.3 (6.73)
 Indian 49.8 (8.45) 43.9 (5.23) 43.1 (5.67)
 Others 47.9 (6.67) 42.4 (6.27) 42.3 (8.81)
Education
 Primary or below 48.3 (8.33) 0.002 43.5 (5.46) 0.123 43.6 (5.05) 0.007
 Secondary 49.5 (7.96) 43.9 (5.03) 43.1 (5.45)
 Tertiary 52.8 (5.87) 45.2 (5.05) 45.5 (4.61)
Occupation
 Private 49.7 (7.85) 0.108 44.4 (5.14) 0.334 44.3 (5.44) 0.007
 Government 52.7 (6.45) 44.6 (5.13) 44.5 (4.38)
 Retiree 48.6 (8.18) 43.1 (5.03) 42.2 (5.42)
 Housewives 49.5 (8.51) 44.3 (5.02) 43.2 (5.24)
 Students 51.9 (6.05) 43.4 (4.86) 47.3 (3.59)
 Unemployed 48.7 (7.33) 43.2 (5.91) 43.0 (5.55)
Known medical illness
 Yes 49.7 (7.99) 0.499 43.9 (5.15) 0.317 43.5 (5.35) 0.571
 No 48.6 (7.32) 44.9 (4.93)   44.1 (5.23)  
Area of residence
 Urban 47.8 (8.25) < 0.001 42.9 (5.09) < 0.001 42.6 (5.29) 0.002
 Rural 51.1 (7.39) 44.8 (5.06) 44.2 (5.23)
Household income
 Below RM 4360 49.5 (8.00) 0.110 44.0 (5.11) 0.463 43.5 (5.41) 0.316
 RM 4360 - RM 9619 50.9 (7.94) 44.8 (5.08) 44.5 (5.08)
  > RM 9619 54.4 (5.06) 44.1 (5.31) 43.1 (5.43)
Adherence
 Good 50.4 (8.02) 0.076 44.6 (4.95) 0.030 44.1 (5.37) 0.116
 Moderate and poor 48.6 (7.95) 43.2 (5.23) 42.9 (5.08)
Overall (mean score) 49.6 (7.95) Range: 23–60 44.0 (5.14) Range: 30–50 43.6 (5.34) Range: 26–50
Overall (in percentage) 82.6%   88.0%   87.2%  
  1. Notes: Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA was performed to detect the differences of mean scores across different groups