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Table 1 Methodological quality ratings and impact directions of included studies (n = 76)

From: The impact of hospital accreditation on the quality of healthcare: a systematic literature review

Themes Definition and Examples Related Studies Cited as per the Reference List Methodological Quality Impact Direction of Good & Fair Studies
Good Fair Poor Positive Negative Neutral
Changes in organizational culture and management (n = 5) Demonstrated as a significant quantitative hospital managerial or cultural change (e.g., safety culture, communication) 56–60 1 4 0 4 0 1
Changes at the professionals’ level (n = 10) Demonstrated as changes in professionals’ self-reported outcome parameters (e.g., job stress, job satisfaction) 49, 59, 61–68 3 6 1 1 4 4
Changes at the patient level (n = 14) Demonstrated as a measurable change in self-reported subjective outcome parameters from a patient and user perspective (e.g., patient satisfaction, patient experience) 21, 48, 53, 55, 69–78 6 6 2 3 2 7
Changes in patient clinical outcomes (n = 24) Demonstrated as a statistically significant change in patient health outcome measures (e.g., mortality rate, length of stay) 8, 21, 25, 50–53, 79–95 8 12 4 15 0 5
Changes in the performance measures (n = 28) Demonstrated as a statistically significant change in clinical performance measures (e.g., hand hygiene compliance, medication utilization) 8, 19, 28, 48, 51, 54, 60, 68, 79, 87, 90, 96–111 14 12 2 18 0 8
Changes in economic outcomes (n = 8) Demonstrated as quantifiable changes in financial or economic outcome parameters (e.g., efficiency, profitability) 83, 90, 112–117 4 4 0 5 1 2