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Table 5 MLRM for the impact of associated factors on OOPE

From: How costly is the first prenatal clinic visit? Analysis of out-of-pocket expenditure in rural Sri Lanka - a country with free maternal health care

Model Coefficient (B) t-statistics P-value 95.0% Confidence Interval for B Variance Inflation Factor (VIF)
Lower Bound Upper Bound
Constant* 27.76 11.698 0.000 23.10 32.41
Monthly household income −8.605E-6 −0.723 0.470 0.00 0.00 2.05
Income quintile (compared to income quintile 1 [< USD 170.08]) Income quintile 2
(USD 170.09–215.44)
0.77 0.693 0.488 −1.41 2.95 1.36
Income quintile 3*
(USD 215.45–255.13)
2.51 2.480 0.013 0.52 4.49 1.51
Income quintile 4
(USD 255.14–368.52)
1.52 1.427 0.154 −0.57 3.61 1.67
Income quintile 5
(> USD 368.53)
1.52 1.004 0.315 −1.45 4.48 3.13
Age of the Mother 0.09 1.510 0.131 −0.03 0.21 1.05
Employment status
(compared with the Housewives – do not engage in any income generating activities)
Employed −1.95 −1.424 0.155 −4.63 0.74 2.81
Sector of the employment (compared to the government sector) Semi-government −0.45 −0.248 0.804 −3.10 3.10 2.27
Private 1.91 1.006 0.315 −1.81 5.63 1.77
Educational level (compared with the ‘up to advanced level examination’) Less than primary* education (<grade 5) 10.89 2.606 0.009 2.69 19.09 1.02
Up to primary education −2.78 −0.334 0.738 −19.07 13.52 1.01
From grade 5 to 11 0.97 0.749 0.454 −1.57 3.50 1.17
Up to ordinary level examination −0.01 −0.015 0.988 −1.47 1.45 1.26
Number of Pregnancies −0.33 −1.128 0.260 −0.91 0.25 1.02
Number of weeks in pregnancy −0.09 −0.884 0.377 −0.30 0.12 1.01
Used transport method to reach the health facility (compared with using an own/family vehicle) Public transport 0.226 0.315 0.752 −1.18 1.63 1.01
Type of the health service used (compared with private health facilities) Government health facilities* −27.090 −33.031 0.000 −28.70 − 25.48 1.02
  1. *significant at 0.05 of the p-value