Skip to main content

Table 5 Direct costs of management for participants in the control and intervention groups

From: Pharmacist-led intervention in treatment non-adherence and associated direct costs of management among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in southwestern Nigeria

Cost items Group Total cost Mean cost per patient ± SD Paired t-test % increase/decrease in cost
  6-month pre-baseline (USD) 6-month post- baseline (USD) 6-month pre- baseline (USD) 6-month post baseline (USD) p- value  
Consultation Control (n = 95) 1400.7 1232.7 14.7 ± 6.5 13.0 ± 5.5 0.00* 12.0
Intervention (n = 106) 1419.5 1300.7 13.4 ± 6.8 12.3 ± 6.4 0.001* 8.4
Transportation fare Control (n = 95) 662.5 589.5 7.0 ± 6.7 6.2 ± 5.5 0.012* 11.0
Intervention (n = 106) 1076.1 957.8 10.2 ± 11.2 9.0 ± 9.9 0.003* 11.0
Anti-hypertensives Control (n = 72) 4218.3 4379.8 58.1 ± 47.1 60.8 ± 47.4 0.137 3.8
Intervention (n = 80) 5137.4 5530.2 62.4 ± 55.9 68.8 ± 58.1 0.121 7.6
Antidiabetes medication(s) Control (n = 95) 9521.9 9359.2 100.2 ± 59.3 98.5 ± 56.9 0.719 1.7
Intervention (n = 106) 12,434.8 13,490.9 117.3 ± 61.9 127.3 ± 66.2 0.025* 8.5
Other medications Control (n = 33) 3882.6 4458.8 104.1 ± 106.6 106.6 ± 74.5 0.678 14.8
Intervention (n = 53) 5340.8 5290.3 94.0 ± 56.1 89.0 ± 67.4 0.589 0.9
Total medications Control (n = 95) 17,589.8 18,192.8 185.2 ± 107.6 191.6 ± 114.5 0.345 3.4
Intervention (n = 106) 22,912.9 24,311.4 216.2 ± 104.3 229.4 ± 128.5 0.068 6.1
Laboratory Investigations Control (n = 95) 7906.4 7445.4 83.2 ± 25.4 78.4 ± 27.3 0.121 5.8
Intervention (n = 106) 9308.9 8725.0 87.8 ± 28.1 82.3 ± 16.1 0.035* 6.3
Overall costs of management Control (n = 95) 27,559.4 27,465.3 290.1 ± 117.0 289.1 ± 120.0 0.89 0.3
Intervention (n = 106) 34,689.7 35,294.9 327.3 ± 114.4 333.0 ± 118.4 0.449 1.7
  1. Percentage increase or decrease was calculated by subtracting cost at 6-month post-baseline from the cost at 6-month pre-baseline, divided by the cost at pre-baseline, then multiplied by 100. The cost for 6-month pre-baseline was calculated retrospectively from participants’ case notes using information on prescribed medications, laboratory investigations and number of clinic visit/consultations within 6-month prior to baseline enrolment, while patients’ cost of transportation to the hospital for current visit was used in calculating the transport fare. Mean cost per patient was calculated from the respective total cost divided by the corresponding number of patients. Total medications cost is the sum of the costs for antidiabetes, antihypertensive and other adjunct medications. Each hospital approved price for medication, laboratory investigation and consultation was used as a guide for calculating the respective cost
  2. Conversion of Naira to USD as at January, 2017 was ₦303.0 to 1US dollar (https://www1.oanda.com/currency/converter/). *Significant difference with paired t-test