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Table 3 Clinical outcomes and adherence parameters at baseline and 6-month post-baseline

From: Pharmacist-led intervention in treatment non-adherence and associated direct costs of management among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in southwestern Nigeria

ITEMS   UCH (n = 126) p- value FMC (n = 75) p-value Total (201) p-value
Group Baseline
n (%)
6-month post baseline
n (%)
  Baseline
n (%)
6-month post-baseline n(%)   Baseline
n (%)
6-month post baseline
n (%)
 
MAQ Control < 100% 22 (31.4) 13 (18.6) 0.04+ 8 (32.0) 7(28.0) 0.18+ 30 (31.6) 20 (21.1) 0.041+
Control = 100% 48 (68.6) 57 (81.4)   17 (68.0) 18(72.0)   65 (68.4) 75 (78.9)  
Intervention < 100% 36 (64.3) 15 (32.1) 0.00+ 25 (50.0) 11 (32.0) 0.035+ 61 (57.5) 26 (24.5) 0.000+
Intervention = 100% 20 (35.7) 41(73.2)   25 (50.0) 39 (78.0)   45 (42.5) 80 (75.5)  
IPAQ (MPW) Control <600MPW 27 (38.6) 23 (32.9) 0.00+ 9 (36.0) 6 (24.0) 0.453+ 36 (37.9) 29 (30.5) 0.98+
Control ≥600MPW 43 (61.1) 47 (67.1)   16 (64.0) 19 (76.0)   59 (62.1) 66 (69.5)  
Intervention <600MPW 17 (30.4) 11 (19.6) 0.07+ 25 (50.0) 19 (38.0) 0.18+ 42 (39.6) 30 (28.3) 0.00+
Intervention ≥600MPW 39 (69.6) 45 (80.4)   25 (50.0) 31 (62.0)   64 (60.4) 76 (71.7)  
IPAQ (MET) Mean ± SD Control 945.2 ± 842.9 977.1 ± 853.4 0.002* 777.1 ± 312.1 729.2 ± 291.4 0.161* 901.4 ± 743.5 911.7 ± 752.6 0.327*
Intervention 1058.4 ± 935.6 1102.5 ± 908.6 0.001* 552.1 ± 224.7 608 ± 244.0 0.005* 775.2 ± 700.5 829.3 ± 695.5 0.000*
PDAQ Diet scale Control < 51 8 (11.4) 7 (10.0) 1.00+ 3 (12.0) 3 (12.0) 1.00+ 11 (11.6) 8 (8.4) 0.45.3+
Control ≥51 62 (88.6) 63 (90.0)   22 (88.0) 22 (88.0)   84 (88.4) 87 (91.6)  
Intervention < 51 26 (46.4) 7 (12.5) 0.000+ 13 (26.0) 2 (4.0) 0.001+ 39 (36.8) 11 (10.4) 0.000+
Intervention ≥51 30 (53.6) 49 (87.5)   37 (74.0) 48 (96.0)   67 (63.2) 95 (89.6)  
PDAQ Mean ± SD Control 56.4 ± 4.0 56.6 ± 3.8 0.094* 55.9 ± 4.1 56.3 ± 4.2 0.44* 56.3 ± 4.0 56.5 ± 3.9 0.094*
Intervention 50.3 ± 10.1 56.3 ± 4.4 0.000* 53.4 ± 6.7 56.5 ± 4.1 0.00* 51.8 ± 8.8 56.4 ± 4.3 0.000*
HbA1c (%) Control < 7% 70 (55.6) 102 (81.0) 1.00+ 25 (33.3) 32 (42.7) 0.016+ 95 (47.3) 134 (66.7) 0.008+
Intervention ≥7% 56 (44.4) 24 (19.0) 0.000+ 50 (66.7) 43 (57.3) 0.000+ 106 (52.7) 67 (33.3) 0.000+
HbA1c Mean ± SD (%) Control 6.1 ± 0.6 6.0 ± 0.7 0.005* 6.4 ± 0.5 6.7 ± 1.0 0.15* 6.1 ± 0.6 6.1 ± 0.8 0.094*
Intervention 8.4 ± 1.3 7.0 ± 1.3 0.00* 9.0 ± 1.7 8.8 ± 2.3 0.492* 8.7 ± 1.5 7.8 ± 2.0 0.000*
SBP (mmHg) Mean ± SD Control 127.3 ± 16.9 122.7 ± 13.6 0.002* 134.2 ± 20.9 132.4 ± 19.2 0.574* 129.3 ± 18.2 125.3 ± 15.9 0.004*
Intervention 134.3 ± 20.0 125.7 ± 19.3 0.000* 140.4 ± 21.1 137.1 ± 19.3 0.33* 136.9 ± 20.7 131.0 ± 19.9 0.002*
DBP (mmHg) Mean ± SD Control 76.9 ± 8.6 74.3 ± 7.2 0.007* 77.3 ± 9.5 77.9 ± 9.5 0.814* 77.1 ± 8.93 75.3 ± 8.0 0.068*
Intervention 80.35 ± 10.9 76.2 ± 7.2 0.009* 80.2 ± 9.9 80.1 ± 4.4 0.973* 80.2 ± 10.4 78.3 ± 9.6 0.074*
  1. Pearson Chi-square of adherence status among patients showed more males with glycaemic control (HbA1c < 7%) compared to females (χ2 = 11.381, p = 0.001) after intervention
  2. MAQ = Medication Adherence Questions; IPAQ- International Physical Activity Questionnaire; PDAQ = Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire; MPW- Minimum Physical Activity Per Week measured in unit of MET; MET = Metabolic Equivalent Task; SBP = Systolic Blood Pressure; DBP = Diastolic Blood Pressure; HbA1c = Glycated haemoglobin; *Paired t-test, p < 0.05 significant; +McNemar test, p < 0.05 significant