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Table 1 List of variables for empirical analysis

From: Health service underutilization and its associated factors for chronic diseases patients in poverty-stricken areas in China: a multilevel analysis

Variable Characteristics
Dependent variable
 Health service underutilization No (Reference); Yes
Independent variable
Predisposing factors
  Age Years (Continuous)
  Gender Female (Reference); Male
  Ethnicity Han ethnic (Reference); Minorities
  Marital status Other (Unmarried/divorced/widowed, reference); Married
  Education level Primary school or below (Reference); Junior high school; Senior high school or above
Enabling factors
  Income Low (Reference); Middle; High
  Medical insurance Uninsured (Reference); URRBMI (including URBMI or NRCMS); UEBMI Others (e.g., commercial insurance)
  Regular follow-up (source of care) No (Reference); Yes
  Distance to the nearest health facility Less than one kilometer (Reference); 1-5 km; More than 5 km
Need factors
  Self-reported health score Points (Continuous)