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Table 2 Panel-data unit root test (Fisher type based on Augmented Dickey-Fuller)

From: Physician induced demand for knee replacement surgery in Iran

Variables Inverse chi-squared P Inverse normal Z
nit −1 665.66** -22.50**
sit −1 520.99** -19.22**
fit −1 395.89** -15.85**
nit 645.13** -22.20**
inc 124.21** -9.47**
  1. **Indicate that the non-stationary null hypothesis is rejected at the 1% significance level