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Table 3 Overall risk of bias assessments for individual non-randomized studies according to standardized criteria (ROBINS-I [6]), using the tools’ ascending scale of risk (low, moderate, serious, critical, or No Information (NI), meaning the risk of bias could not be assessed)

From: Nocturnal digital surveillance in aged populations and its effects on health, welfare and social care provision: a systematic review

Non-randomized studies
(ROBINS-I assessment criteria)
Sivertsen and Løe, 2019 [10] Røhne et al., 2016 [11]
Bias due to confounding Critical Serious
Bias in selection of participants NI NI
Bias in classification of interventions Moderate Serious
Bias in deviations from intervention Low Low
Bias due to missing data NI Critical
Bias in measurement of outcomes Serious Serious
Bias in selective reporting Moderate Moderate
Overall Bias Critical Critical
Comments/direction of bias Unpredictable Unpredictable