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Table 4 Factors associated with total cost of hip fracture surgery for patients during an index hospitalization in Japan, Korea, & Taiwana

From: Variations in hip fracture inpatient care in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan: an analysis of health administrative data

   Japan Korea Taiwan
   B SE p B SE p B SE P
Individual characteristics
Sex Male (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  Female −0.026 0.003 <0.001 0.009 0.004 0.014 −0.009 0.004 0.021
Age 50–64 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
  65–74 0.019 0.007 0.005 0.075 0.007 <0.001 0.043 0.006 <0.001
  75–84 0.030 0.006 <0.001 0.117 0.006 <0.001 0.065 0.006 <0.001
  85 + 0.020 0.006 0.001 0.133 0.006 <0.001 0.096 0.006 <0.001
Household income level Q1     (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Q2     0.011 0.005 0.013 −0.014 0.016 0.382
Q3     0.010 0.005 0.044 −0.016 0.016 0.303
Q4     0.013 0.005 0.005 −0.027 0.016 0.098
Charlson Comorbidity Index 0 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
1 0.072 0.005 <0.001 0.023 0.004 <0.001 0.045 0.005 <0.001
2 0.007 0.003 0.039 0.075 0.005 <0.001 0.083 0.006 <0.001
3 0.080 0.007 <0.001 0.155 0.009 <0.001 0.104 0.008 <0.001
4+ 0.027 0.006 <0.001 0.199 0.013 <0.001 0.105 0.008 <0.001
Surgical intervention/ Procedure Internal fixation (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Hemiarthroplasty 0.248 0.003 <0.001 0.283 0.004 <0.001 0.461 0.004 <0.001
Total hip arthroplasty 0.447 0.013 <0.001 0.412 0.009 <0.001 0.522 0.030 <0.001
Hospital characteristics
Location Urban −0.021 0.013 0.104 0.006 0.048 0.907 −0.002 0.026 0.933
  Rural (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Ownership Public −0.046 0.010 <0.001 0.256 0.029 <0.001 −0.034 0.012 0.006
  Private, others (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Teaching hospital Yes 0.036 0.020 0.074 0.034 0.027 0.206 −0.036 0.018 0.041
No (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
No. of Hosp. beds 30–99 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
100–399 0.000 0.030 0.996 0.151 0.018 <0.001 0.111 0.042 0.009
400+ −0.057 0.031 0.064 0.225 0.029 <0.001 0.160 0.042 <0.001
No. of hip fracture patients Q1 (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
Q2 −0.003 0.014 0.832 −0.014 0.022 0.521 −0.007 0.025 0.769
Q3 −0.020 0.014 0.164 0.065 0.024 0.006 −0.037 0.027 0.175
Q4 −0.105 0.014 <0.001 0.114 0.026 <0.001 0.010 0.028 0.719
Regional characteristics
(where the hospital located)
Disposable income (USD PPP, 2010) −0.001 0.004 0.724 0.005 0.010 0.625 −0.002 0.005 0.721
Herfindahl-Hirschman index 0.027 0.014 0.052 0.045 0.018 0.011 −0.034 0.025 0.171
% elderly lives alone 0.001 0.002 0.479 0.010 0.008 0.223 −0.003 0.005 0.605
No. of physicians per 1000 persons 0.019 0.018 0.296 −0.006 0.025 0.816 −0.048 0.034 0.159
No. of hospital beds per 1000 persons −0.005 0.003 0.048 −0.001 0.002 0.647 0.007 0.009 0.450
No. of home care facilities per 10,000 persons −0.001 0.001 0.622 0.003 0.021 0.904 −0.009 0.055 0.872
% social welfare expenditure 0.003 0.001 0.025 0.002 0.003 0.663 −0.001 0.006 0.815
  1. aThe intraclass correlation coefficient in each analytic model is as follows: Japan (0.138), Korea (0.298), and Taiwan (0.090)