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Table 3 Associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health status and migration related factors at baseline and follow-up and use of emergency care, outpatient/specialist services and hospitalizations at follow-up

From: Use of health care services among Syrian refugees migrating to Norway: a prospective longitudinal study

  General Practitioner at T2 Emergency care at T2 Outpatient/Specialist care at T2 Hospitalization at T2
  RR (CI 95 %) ARR (CI 95 %) RR (CI 95 %) ARR (CI 95 %) RR (CI 95 %) ARR (CI 95 %) RR (CI 95 %) ARR (CI 95 %)
Sociodemographic factors at T1        
Gender        
Male (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
FemaleA 1.09 (0.99, 1.19) 1.09 (0.99, 1.19) 1.10 (0.70, 1.73) 1.34 (0.83, 2.08) 0.84 (0.52, 1.37) 0.81 (0.50, 1.33) 0.85 (0.53, 1.36) 1.01 (0.62, 1.64)
Age (years)B 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)** 1.04 (1.02, 1.06)** 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)* 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)*
Education (continuous)C 0.99 (0.99, 1.01) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.93 (0.87, 1.00)* 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.96 (0.90, 1.04) 0.98 (0.92, 1.05)
Health literacy (continuous)D 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 0.99 (0.84, 1.18) 0.89 (0.73, 1.10) 0.95 (0.79, 1.15) 0.91 (0.74, 1.13) 1.07 (0.90, 1.27) 0.97 (0.80, 1.19)
Social support (categorical)        
Low social support (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
High social supportC 1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 1.00 (0.91, 1.11) 1.18 (0.72, 1.93) 1.46 (0.86, 2.47) 1.24 (0.73, 2.13) 1.35 (0.77, 2.35) 1.22 (0.72, 2.05) 1.56 (0.90, 2.70)
Health status and Quality of life at T1        
Self-rated health (categorical)        
Moderate to good SRH (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Poor SRHE 1.03 (0.92, 1.14) 1.05 (0.95, 1.16) 1.72 (1.06, 2.77)* 1.72 (1.06, 2.78)* 1.43 (0.83, 2.47) 1.36 (0.77, 2.43) 1.17 (0.65, 2.08) 1.05 (0.60, 1.84)
Quality of life (continuous)        
Physical health (WHOQOL-BREF domain 1)E 0.99 (0.99, 1.00) 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 0.98 (0.90, 1.06) 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) 0.96 (0.88, 1.05) 0.96 (0.88, 1.06) 0.98 (0.90, 1.07) 0.99 (0.91, 1.09)
Psychological health (WHOQOL-BREF domain 2)E 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02) 1.04 (0.95, 1.13) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 0.99 (0.91, 1.09) 0.99 (0.90, 1.09) 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) 1.00 (0.91, 1.11)
Social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF domain 3)E 0.99 (0.98, 1.00) 0.99 (0.98, 1.01) 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 0.93 (0.88, 0.99)* 1.04 (0.95, 1.13) 1.06 (0.96, 1.16) 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01)
Environment (WHOQOL-BREF domain 4)E 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 0.96 (0.88, 1.06) 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 1.03 (0.93, 1.13) 1.05 (0.94, 1.17) 0.89 (0.80, 0.99)* 0.93 (0.84, 1.03)
Migration related factors        
Time since flight from Syria (continuous)C 0.98 (0.97, 0.98)* 0.97 (0.94, 1.01) 0.97 (0.80, 1.17) 0.94 (0.80, 1.11) 0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 0.98 (0.80, 1.22) 1.01 (0.81, 1.26) 0.97 (0.79, 1.20)
No residence permit in LebanonC 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)* 1.10 (0.99, 1.25) 1.95 (1.06, 3.60)* 2.72 (1.39, 5.31)** 1.05 (0.62, 1.81) 1.04 (0.61, 1.79) 0.62 (0.38, 1.00) 0.74 (0.45, 1.22)
Migrating alone to LebanonC 0.66 (0.38, 1.13) 0.67 (0.39, 1.16) 1.25 (0.32, 4.83) 0.64 (0.24, 1.72) 1.16 (0.45, 3.01) 3.15 (0.64, 15.4) 1.31 (0.59, 2.92) 1.04 (0.54, 2.07)
Trauma exposure before resettlement in NorwayC 0.96 (0.88, 1.05) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 0.77 (0.48, 1.24) 1.49 (0.95, 2.32) 0.84 (0.51, 1.39) 1.16 (0.69, 1.93) 0.57 (0.34, 0.94)* 1.63 (0.98, 2.71)
Sociodemographic factors at T2        
Gender        
Male (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
FemaleA 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 1.13 (0.71, 1.80) 1.28 (0.81, 2.00) 0.86 (0.52, 1.42) 0.88 (0.53, 1.46) 0.86 (0.53, 1.41) 0.96 (0.59, 1.57)
Age (years)B 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.00 (0.99, 1.00) 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)** 1.04 (1.02, 1.06)** 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)** 1.03 (1.01, 1.05)**
Education (continuous)F 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 0.96 (0.90, 1.02) 1.05 (0.92, 1.19) 1.02 (0.96, 1.10) 1.11 (0.99, 1.25) 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 1.19 (1.08, 1.31)**
Health literacy (continuous)G 1.07 (1.03, 1.12)* 1.06 (1.02, 1.1)* 1.37 (1.08, 1.74)* 1.28 (1.02, 1.61)* 1.24 (0.96, 1.60) 1.21 (0.93, 1.59) 1.61 (1.25, 2.06)** 1.59 (1.25, 2.01)**
Social support (categorical)        
Low social support (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
High social supportH 1.02 (0.93, 1.12) 1.04 (0.94, 1.14) 1.69 (1.02, 2.80)* 1.82 (1.11, 2.98)* 1.82 (1.05, 3.18)* 1.83 (1.04, 3.24)* 1.75 (1.02, 3.00)* 1.83 (1.06, 3.16)*
Health status and Quality of life at T2        
Self-rated health (categorical)        
Moderate to good SRH (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Poor SRHI 0.99 (0.87, 1.13) 0.99 (0.86, 1.14) 2.17 (1.35, 3.47)* 1.92 (1.15, 3.20)* 1.81 (1.05, 3.13) 1.88 (1.03, 3.43)* 2.93 (1.84, 4.66)** 2.49 (1.49, 4.15)**
Quality of life (continuous)        
Physical health (WHOQOL-BREF domain 1)I 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 0.99 (0.98, 1.01) 0.90 (0.85, 0.94)** 0.91 (0.84, 0.97)** 0.90 (0.85, 0.96)* 0.89 (0.84, 0.95)** 0.87 (0.83, 0.92)** 0.88 (0.82, 0.94)**
Psychological health (WHOQOL-BREF domain 2)I 1.02 (1.00, 1.04)* 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 0.87 (0.81, 0.93)* 0.89 (0.84, 0.98)* 0.94 (0.85, 1.04) 0.96 (0.84, 1.09) 0.89 (0.82, 0.98)* 0.89 (0.80, 0.99)*
Social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF domain 3)I 0.99 (0.98, 1.01) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 0.91 (0.86, 0.96)* 0.93 (0.86, 1.00) 0.92 (0.86, 0.99)* 0.90 (0.86, 0.99)* 0.88 (0.83, 0.93)** 0.90 (0.84, 0.97)**
Environment (WHOQOL-BREF domain 4)I 1.04 (1.02, 1.05)** 1.04 (1.02, 1.06)** 1.06 (0.96, 1.17) 1.08 (0.96, 1.21) 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) 1.06 (0.96, 1.18) 1.06 (0.91, 1.23)
  1. A: adjusted for age. B: adjusted for gender. C: adjusted for age and gender. D: adjusted for age, gender, social support at T1 and education at T1. E: adjusted for age, gender, social support at T1 and trauma exposure. F: adjusted for age, gender and education at T1. G: adjusted for age, gender, social support at T1, education at T1 and health literacy at T1. H: adjusted for age, gender, social support at T1 and trauma exposure. I: adjusted for age, gender, social support at T1, SRH and QoL at T1, time since flight from Syria, no residence permit at T1 and trauma exposure. Significant results with P < 0.05 are marked with an asterisk. Significant results with P < 0.01 are marked with two asterisks