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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression model for impact on caregivers, stratified by caregiving intensity level

From: The impacts of caregiving intensity on informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from a national survey

Factor Low intensity level of care High intensity level of care
Affect health Affect daily activitiesd Affect social activities Affect health Affect daily activitiesd Affect social activities
Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Demographic, socioeconomic and health
Sex
  Male 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  Female 3.33 (1.26–8.75) 0.015 1.56 (0.76–3.22) 0.227 1.67 (0.66–4.22) 0.281 3.15 (0.89–11.18) 0.076 0.94 (0.45–1.95) 0.858 1.78 (0.63–5.04) 0.275
Ethnicity
  Malaya    1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)      1.00 (ref)
  Non-Malay    2.91 (1.40–6.08) 0.004 1.49 (0.65–3.39) 0.344      3.34 (1.25–8.93) 0.016
Age (years)
  18–34 3.54 (0.65–19.33) 0.144 0.48 (0.15–1.56) 0.222 0.88 (0.27–2.94) 0.839 0.32 (0.08–1.36) 0.122 2.31 (0.71–7.47) 0.163 0.68 (0.19–2.44) 0.553
  35–59 3.75 (1.22–11.51) 0.021 0.86 (0.32–2.33) 0.770 1.31 (0.48–3.57) 0.596 0.20 (0.05–0.80) 0.023 1.22 (0.47–3.15) 0.681 0.30 (0.08–1.18) 0.086
  60+ 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Educational level
  No formal 1.00 (ref)          1.00 (ref)
  Primary 1.22 (0.22–6.91) 0.822          1.05 (0.10–10.52) 0.968
  Secondary 0.65 (0.13–3.11) 0.584          3.86 (0.35–42.12) 0.267
  Tertiary 0.42 (0.06–3.18) 0.401          9.00 (0.68–119.47) 0.096
Marital status
  Married 2.57 (0.90–7.29) 0.077      0.38 (0.13–1.14) 0.084     
  Not married (divorced, separated or never married) 1.00 (ref)      1.00 (ref)     
Employment status
  Active    1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)       
  Inactive    1.32 (0.56–3.11) 0.521 1.62 (0.68–3.87) 0.274       
Incomeb
  Low 1.79 (0.50–6.42) 0.372           
  Middle 0.62 (0.20–1.93) 0.412           
  High 1.00 (ref)           
Location
  Urban            1.00 (ref)
  Rural            0.57 (0.19–1.71) 0.319
Self-reported health problems
  Yes        2.58 (0.76–8.75) 0.129     
  No        1.00 (ref)     
Long-term conditionc
  Yes 3.43 (1.42–8.32) 0.006      0.79 (0.18–3.45) 0.758     
  No 1.00 (ref)      1.00 (ref)     
Self-rated health             
  Excellent - Good      1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)     
  Fair - Very Poor      1.65 (0.63–4.33) 0.312 1.27 (0.43–3.70) 0.664     
Caregiving-related             
Living in the same household
  Yes            9.34 (0.89–97.64) 0.062
  No            1.00 (ref)
Receive training
  Yes        4.50 (1.61–12.56) 0.004 1.88 (0.74–4.77) 0.184 4.46 (1.82–10.96) 0.001
  No        1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Has assistance
  Yes    1.00 (ref)    1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
  No    1.61 (0.66–3.95) 0.299    3.18 (1.07–9.45) 0.037 2.96 (1.16–7.54) 0.023 1.67 (0.63–4.43) 0.303
Duration of providing care (years)
  Less than 2 1.00 (ref)          1.00 (ref)
  2 and more 2.02 (0.92–4.43) 0.080          3.73 (1.12–12.42) 0.032
  1. Statistically significant p-values (< 0.05) are shown in bold. Multicollinearity was unlikely. Overall fit of the model for each binary logit was checked using weighted area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve [model affect health (low intensity), 0.803; model affect daily activities (low intensity), 0.707; model affect social activities (low intensity), 0.658; model affect health (high intensity), 0.799; model affect daily activities (high intensity), 0.654; model affect social activities (high intensity), 0.819]. Models were considered fit based on the area under the curve
  2. CI Confidence Interval, OR Odds Ratio, ref. reference category
  3. a Malay includes Orang Asli
  4. b Low income (comprised of those from quintile one and two), Middle income (comprised of those from quintile three and four), High income (comprised of those from the highest quintile)
  5. c Long-term condition refers to presence of any non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia)
  6. d Daily activities refers to daily, work or school activities