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Table 2 Burdens for informal caregivers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 1000)

From: Informal caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic perceive additional burden: findings from an ad-hoc survey in Germany

  Main Caregiver Time required Level of care Dementia Professional help Number of Involvement indicators met
Yes
63.2%
(n = 632)
No
35.8%
(n = 358)
Short expenditure of time
84.0%
(n = 840)
High expenditure of time
16.0%
(n = 160)
Minor Level
47.7%
(n = 477)
Serious Level
50.8%
(n = 508)
Yes
31.5%
(n = 315)
No
67.3%
(n = 673)
Yes
52.6%
(n = 526)
No
47.4%
(n = 474)
Mean (SD)
Secondary Stressors
Change in care situation (%, n)
  much/somewhat better 3.3 (21) 3.1 (11) 3.1 (26) 3.8 (6) 3.1 (15) 3.1 (16) 2.2 (7) 3.7 (25)*** 3.6 (19)** 1.5 (7) 2.0 (1.1)
  no change 63.9 (404) 65.4 (234) 64.8 (544) 63.1 (101) 68.3 (326) 61.2 (311) 56.2 (177) 69.4 (460)*** 59.3 (312) 70.3 (333)** 2.1 (1.1)
  somewhat/much worse 31.3 (198) 29.1 (104) 30.4 (255) 30.6 (49) 27.3 (130) 33.5 (170) 39.7 (125)*** 26.2 (176) 34.8 (183)** 25.5 (121) 2.2 (1.1)
  n.s. 1.4 (9) 2.6 (9) 1.8 (15) 2.5 (4) 1.3 (6) 2.2 (11) 1.9 (6)*** 1.8 (12) 2.3 (12)** 1.5 (7) 2.0 (1.1)
Concerns/excessive demands (M, SD) 9.9 (3.4) 9.7 (3.3) 9.8 (3.3) 10.2 (3.9) 9.5 (3.4) 10.2 (3.3)** 10.7 (3.6)*** 9.4 (3.2) 10.3 (3.5)*** 9.3 (3.2) 2.1 (1.1)
Intermediating Factors
Problems with implementation of COVID-19 measures (M, SD) 9.8 (1.9) 9.7 (1.8) 9.7 (1.8) 10.1 (2.3) 9.6 (1.7) 9.9 (2.0)** 10.1 (2.0)*** 9.6 (1.8) 9.8 (1.9) 9.7 (1.8) 2.1 (1.1)
Loss of support (M, SD) 2.2 (2.5) 2.4 (2.4) 2.2 (2.4) 2.1 (2.9) 1.9 (2.3) 2.5 (2.6)*** 2.7 (2.7)*** 2.0 (2.3) 2.9 (2.7)*** 1.5 (2.0) 2.1 (1.1)
Provision, comprehension & practicability of COVID-19 information5 (M, SD) 3.3 (0.7) 3.3 (0.8) 3.3 (0.8) 3.3 (0.7) 3.3 (0.7) 3.3 (0.8) 3.4 (0.8)** 3.3 (0.7) 3.4 (0.8) 3.3 (0.7) 2.1 (1.1)
Stress Outcomes
Negative feelings M (SD) 8.7 (1.6) 8.7 (1.7) 8.7 (1.6) 8.8 (1.8) 8.7 (1.6) 8.7 (1.7) 9.0 (1.8)*** 8.6 (1.5) 8.8 (1.6)** 8.6 (1.6) 2.1 (1.1)
Caregiving by myself (%, n)
  has stopped completely 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0)
  decreased 9.5 (60) 18.4 (66)*** 14.6 (123)*** 2.5 (4) 11.5 (55) 13.8 (70) 12.4 (39) 13.1 (88) 15.2 (80)* 9.9 (47) 1.7 (0.9)
  did not change 68.8 (435)*** 63.7 (228) 65.4 (549) 76.3 (122)*** 66.9 (319) 67.3 (342) 64.4 (203) 68.4 (460) 63.3 (333) 71.3 (338)* 2.1 (1.2)
  increased 21.7 (137)*** 17.9 (64) 20.0 (168) 21.3 (34)*** 21.6 (103) 18.9 (96) 23.2 (73) 18.6 (125) 21.5 (113)* 18.8 (89) 2.1 (1.1)
  1. Note. Significant values are shown in bold type. *p < .05, ** p < .01 und *** p < .001; M = mean, SD = standard deviation, % = percent, n = number, > = greater than, < = less than