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Table 6 Factors associated with OOP expenditures stratified by type of care

From: Health services utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures in public and private facilities in Pakistan: an empirical analysis of the 2013–14 OOP health expenditure survey

OOP Expenditurea Outpatient Inpatient
Marginal effect SE p-value Marginal effect SE p-value
Sector of care
 Private 1302.64 1179.10 0.27 6656.55 1359.37 < 0.001
Gender
 Female −669.61 687.30 0.33 −4636.28 2330.86 0.05
Age
 0 to 5 Ref.    Ref.   
 6 to 20 1749.97 530.25 0.001 4647.41 2554.70 0.07
 21 to 40 5033.45 685.47 < 0.001 11,412.02 3626.46 0.002
 41 to 60 8093.58 1134.86 < 0.001 4098.84 2401.64 0.09
 > 60 7374.50 1174.63 < 0.001 3207.23 2764.51 0.25
Household wealth quintile
 Poorest Ref.    Ref.   
 Poorer 1573.21 613.17 0.01 1536.80 1235.42 0.21
 Middle 3387.03 1048.08 0.001 4470.90 1298.43 0.001
 Richer 4334.84 787.13 < 0.001 7423.11 1641.75 < 0.001
 Richest 7302.04 1230.81 < 0.001 22,536.90 3227.64 < 0.001
Region
 Rural 1454.51 591.75 0.01 3296.88 1479.93 0.03
Province
 Punjab Ref.    Ref.   
 Sindh − 4664.80 575.07 < 0.001 −3136.24 1450.22 0.03
 KP − 4393.93 750.38 < 0.001 447.40 2324.60 0.85
 Balochistan − 1621.27 1020.91 0.11 − 8523.96 1637.83 < 0.001
Household size
 1–4 Ref.    Ref.   
 5–8 − 1183.92 721.30 0.10 −5581.07 2299.34 0.02
 9–12 − 1833.67 951.51 0.05 −9167.43 2577.53 < 0.001
 13+ −3388.54 947.73 < 0.001 1127.79 6448.54 0.86
Type of illness
 Communicable Ref.    Ref.   
 Accident/Injury 3397.88 2521.68 0.18 13,214.49 4524.63 0.003
 Chronic 1442.92 919.07 0.12 4133.48 2739.33 0.13
 Childbirth N/A    − 3683.05 2423.11 0.13
 Other female reproductive health concerns 760.92 1433.90 0.60 − 2495.16 3035.34 0.41
 Other illness − 4268.83 679.27 < 0.001 13,546.45 4022.53 0.001
N 6770 1199
  1. aModeled using GLM with log link and gamma distribution, marginal effects are shown
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