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Table 5 Factors associated with the proportion of significant effect sizes

From: Is the evidence on the effectiveness of pay for performance schemes in healthcare changing? Evidence from a meta-regression analysis

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Average Marginal Effect (AME) Sample mean Average Marginal Effect (AME) Sample mean Average Marginal Effect (AME) Sample mean
New studies (August 2015-Feb 2018) 0.11 (0.13) 0.32 (0.47) 0.06 (0.17) 0.30 (0.46) 0.05 (0.16) 0.26 (0.44)
Research design
 Difference in Differences (DID) −0.20** (0.08) 0.43 (0.50) −0.20** (0.10) 0.44 (0.50) − 0.24** (0.10) 0.52 (0.51)
 Interrupted Time Series (ITS) −0.09 (0.10) 0.12 (0.33) −0.11 (0.11) 0.13 (0.34) −0.67*** (0.08) 0.09 (0.30)
 Randomized Control Trial (RCT) −0.19* (0.10) 0.41 (0.49) −0.20* (0.11) 0.10 (0.30) −0.34*** (0.12) 0.14 (0.35)
Country
 US −0.11* (0.07) 0.41 (0.49) −0.13* (0.07) 0.41 (0.49) 0.08 (0.11) 0.40 (0.50)
Setting
 Hospital 0.06 (0.06) 0.30 (0.46) 0.05 (0.07) 0.32 (0.47) −0.24** (0.09) 0.33 (0.48)
Incentive Schemes
 Cost and quality 0.11* (0.06) 0.25 (0.43) 0.13* (0.08) 0.25 (0.44) −0.34*** (0.08) 0.21 (0.41)
Rewards for improvement −0.12* (0.07) 0.36 (0.48) −0.12* (0.07) 0.38 (0.49) −0.09 (0.06) 0.36 (0.49)
Use of incentives
 Discretionary use    0.01 (0.09) 0.55 (0.50)   
 Special use    0.08 (0.12) 0.06 (0.25)   
 Size of payment to revenue ratio (%)      0.01* (0.00) 11.53 (9.18)
 Publication year fixed effects Yes   Yes   Yes  
 Number of observations 116   109   42  
 Number of clusters 62   57   25  
 Average number of observations per cluster 1.9   1.9   1.7  
 (Min-Max) (1–15)   (1–14)   (1–4)  
 Pseudo-Log −59.91   −55.66   −16.99  
 AIC 1.33   1.37   1.57  
 BIC − 408.42   −365.18   − 84.57  
  1. Note: The omitted reference group for “Research Design” is before and after designs, controlled before and after, and case-control studies. The omitted reference group for “Country” is all other countries. The omitted reference group for “Setting” is primary care. The Omitted reference group for “Incentive schemes” is to pay for performance only. The omitted reference group for “Rewards for improvement” is not rewarding for improvement. The Omitted reference group for “Use of incentives” is using incentives for physician income. The standard errors are clustered in the scheme level and are in the parenthesis
  2. p < 0.10, p < 0.05, p < 0.01
  3. AIC Akaike information criterion
  4. BIC Bayesian information criterion