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Table 1 Descriptive data for patients’, physicians’ and prescriptions’ characteristics

From: Using text analysis software to identify determinants of inappropriate clinical question reporting and diagnostic procedure referrals in Reggio Emilia, Italy

  Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Head CT Musculoskeletal CT Head MRI Musculoskeletal MRI Overall
Total Inappr. Total Inappr. Total Inappr. Total Inappr. Total Inappr. Total Inappr. Total Inappr.
Overall 52,583 37.3% 51,895 53.7% 24,029 52.6% 5221 58.6% 109,689 31.3% 79,561 27.5% 322,978 37,0%
Patient’s age
15–64 31,859 37.4% 35,769 58.8% 13,068 50.0% 3543 57.1% 82,844 30.3% 64,883 27.2% 231,966 36.3%
65–84 19,608 36.6% 15,082 41.5% 9554 55.2% 1571 62.3% 25,740 34.2% 14,319 28.6% 85,874 37.9%
  > 84 1116 46.7% 1044 56.1% 1407 58.8% 107 57.0% 1105 38.5% 358 41.3% 5137 50,0%
Patient’s sex
M 24,542 35.8% 22,650 56.0% 10,856 53.6% 2415 57.3% 47,643 30.6% 41,388 27.0% 126,844 25.1%
F 28,038 38.6% 29,243 51.9% 13,173 51.7% 2806 59.8% 62,042 31.8% 38,168 28.0% 173,470 37.4%
Level of urgency
Urgent (U) 205 100% 272 100% 278 84.9% 69 100% 553 100% 277 100% 1654 97.5%
Deferred urgency (B) 4516 96.3% 4260 94.3% 2664 66.8% 491 48.7% 6077 92.8% 2568 92.0% 20,576 89.4%
Scheduled within 60 days (D) 44,335 32.6% 45,155 49.8% 20,226 50.3% 4,515 59.4% 98,588 27.1% 74,369 25.2% 287,188 33.2%
Scheduled follow up (P) 3527 17.4% 2208 49.0% 861 52.4% 146 50.0% 4,471 29.9% 2347 20.7% 13,560 29.8%
Exemption
Providing test for free 16,694 36.3% 12,403 44.5% 8371 54.0% 1324 57.9% 21,929 35.8% 10,731 28.2% 71,452 38.8%
Not providing test for free 35,889 37.8% 39,492 56.6% 15,658 51.8% 3897 58.9% 87,760 30.1% 68,830 27.4% 251,526 36.4%
Year of referral
2012 8237 45.6% 8542 61.7% 4572 57.3% 993 69.0% 20,816 38.8% 15,842 35.6% 59,002 44.2%
2013 8816 42.0% 8732 56.2% 3915 52.9% 918 65.4% 18,552 32.9% 14,095 29.8% 55,028 39.2%
2014 8897 39.8% 8927 55.4% 4025 51.8% 913 58.5% 19,861 31.2% 14,729 27.9% 57,352 37.3%
2015 8751 34.4% 8387 52.6% 4138 50.3% 863 57.8% 19,072 28.2% 13,555 23.5% 54,766 33.9%
2016 8589 31.2% 8298 47.6% 3505 48.7% 718 51.4% 14,141 26.8% 9553 22.3% 44,804 32.6%
2017 9293 31.5% 9009 48.8% 3874 53.5% 816 46.0% 17,247 27.5% 11,787 22.2% 52,026 32.9%
Physician’s sex
M 36,125 39.6% 35,209 54.7% 16,940 52.9% 3661 59.9% 73,697 32.1% 54,699 28.1% 220,331 38.0%
F 16,107 32.4% 16,336 51.6% 6933 51.6% 1515 55.4% 35,132 29.3% 24,282 26.1% 100,305 34.6%
Physician’s age
28–44 3390 29.3% 3209 48.2% 1473 50.0% 317 44.8% 7003 27.4% 4528 24.8% 19,920 32.5%
45–68 48,842 37.9% 48,336 54.0% 22,400 52.7% 4859 59.5% 101,826 31.5% 74,453 27.6% 300,716 37.2%
GPs’ practice organization*
Primary care medical group 14,822 35.5% 14,205 49.4% 6921 51.4% 1448 54.5% 31,600 27.8% 23,541 23.8% 92,537 33.5%
Primary care medical network 33,736 38.5% 33,654 55.8% 15,357 52.9% 3373 60.3% 69,829 32.9% 50,631 29.4% 206,580 38.6%
District of physician
Mountains 2350 39.4% 3345 54.6% 1635 59.0% 303 57.4% 5753 36.5% 3449 29.9% 16,835 41.7%
Eastern plains 6313 32.2% 6346 51.2% 2566 50.4% 536 52.1% 11,676 26.8% 9018 24.2% 36,455 33.4%
Northern plains 6517 37.6% 7048 54.5% 3721 52.1% 785 58.0% 15,967 31.7% 12,116 27.5% 46,154 37.0%
Western hills 5785 40.0% 5381 54.0% 3170 51.0% 618 64.6% 11,634 32.3% 8924 29.9% 35,512 38.5%
Provincial capital 24,631 39.1% 22,602 55.4% 9483 53.4% 2242 61.2% 48,184 32.4% 34,069 29.0% 141,211 38.3%
Eastern hills 6636 32.3% 6823 48.9% 3298 50.6% 692 51.2% 15,615 27.8% 11,405 22.9% 44,469 32.5%
  1. Data expressed as n and percentage, by diagnostic procedure and overall, for all referral forms made by general practitioners in the province of Reggio Emilia, Italy, between 2012 and 2017