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Table 2 Follow up outcomes in patients according to completing 1-year pay-for-performance program or not

From: The effect of pay-for-performance program on infection events and mortality rate in diabetic patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Outcome P4P (n = 337,184) Non- P4P (n = 337,184) RR, HR or SHR of P4P (95% CI) NNT
ER visit due to infection
 Bacteremia 29,694 (8.8) 39,084 (11.6) 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 36
 Cardiovascular 276 (0.08) 427 (0.13) 0.62 (0.53–0.72) 2233
 Central nervous 656 (0.19) 713 (0.21) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 5916
 Respiratory 15,706 (4.7) 14,725 (4.4) 1.02 (0.997–1.04)* 344
 Gastrointestinal 46,007 (13.6) 49,870 (14.8) 0.87 (0.86–0.88) 87
 Genitourinary 54,131 (16.1) 57,449 (17.0) 0.89 (0.88–0.90) 102
 Musculoskeletal 2581 (0.77) 2852 (0.85) 0.86 (0.82–0.91) 1244
 Device-related infection 3432 (1.02) 3810 (1.13) 0.86 (0.82–0.90) 892
 Any infection event 91,856 (27.2) 97,720 (29.0) 0.87 (0.86–0.88) 58
Infection death 13,882 (4.1) 25,752 (7.6) 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 28
Annual number of events during the follow up
 Number of all-cause ER visit 2.24 ± 4.88 2.04 ± 4.56 0.94 (0.93–0.95) NA
 Number of infection-related ER visit 0.40 ± 1.14 0.37 ± 1.07 0.91 (0.90–0.92) NA
 Number of all-cause hospitalization 1.49 ± 3.05 1.50 ± 2.92 0.85 (0.84–0.86) NA
 Number of infection-related hospitalization 0.48 ± 1.38 0.54 ± 1.40 0.76 (0.75–0.77) NA
All-cause mortality 38,234 (11.3) 71,587 (21.2) 0.45 (0.45–0.46) 10
  1. Abbreviations: P4P pay for performance; CI confidence interval; RR rate ratio; HR hazard ratio; SHR subdistribution hazard ratio; CI confidence interval; ER emergency room; ICU intensive care unit; NNT number needed to treat; NA not applicable;
  2. Data were presented as frequency (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation;
  3. * Not statistically significant