Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant characteristics by Arm

From: Testing patient-informed approaches for visually depicting the hemoglobin A1c value to patients with poorly controlled diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial

 OverallStandardWordsGraph
n = 234100%n = 7833.3%n = 7933.8%n = 7732.9%
Age (mean years [SD])56.3 (10.5)57.8 (10.1)56.1 (10.9)54.9 (10.5)
Hispanic (%)41.711.311.322.6
Race (%)
 Black18076.95975.66379.75871.4
 White4217.91417.91417.71418.2
 Other114.745.122.556.5
Female (%)15265.05165.45164.62065.0
Educational Attainment (%)
 Less than high school3916.7911.51721.51316.9
 Completed high school6829.12430.82025.32431.2
 Some college or a technical degree7130.32734.62227.92228.6
 Bachelor’s/associates degree3414.5911.51215.21316.9
 Grad/professional degree229.4911.5810.156.5
Annual household income (%)
  < $20,0009038.52937.22835.43342.9
 $20,000–$49,0005121.81721.82126.61316.9
 $50,000–$80,0002912.41114.11215.267.8
  > $80,0002611.167.767.61215.6
 Missing3816.21519.21215.21316.9
Initial Hemoglobin A1c (Median % [IQR])9.1 (8.4–10.4)9.2 (8.5–10.8)9.0 (8.4–10.2)9.0 (8.4–10.1)
Diabetes duration, (Mean years [SD])15.1 (11.0)14.5 (10.6)13.7 (10.9)17.3 (11.4)
On insulin (%)16670.95064.15873.45875.3
On an oral diabetes medication (%)14863.25773.14860.84355.8
Self-reported diabetes-related complication (%)9239.32937.22835.43545.5
Prior diabetes education class (%)11750.03443.64253.24153.2
Self-reported hypertension (%)18880.36279.56683.56077.9
Self-reported hyperlipidemia (%)17273.55469.25670.96280.5
Positive depression screen (%)a10243.63646.23139.23545.5
High diabetes self-efficacy (%)b12553.44355.14759.53545.5
Diabetes locus of control (%)c
 % Internal14963.75469.25265.84355.8
 % External3816.2810.31113.91924.7
 % Chance83.422.633.833.9
Subjective Numeracy Score (Mean [SD])d3.1 (1.1)3.1 (1.3)3.2 (1.0)3.1 (1.0)
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR inter-quartile range
  2. aPositive depression screen defined as a “Yes” response to ≥1 question
  3. bHigh diabetes self-efficacy defined by a score above the population median
  4. cDiabetes locus of control defined by the majority of each participant’s responses (e.g., if most responses were consistent with external loci of control, that participant was classified as having an external locus of control
  5. dSubjective numeracy score measured on a scale from 1 (low numeracy) to 6 (high numeracy)