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Table 2 Classification of Theme, main categories and subcategories

From: Explaining factors affecting help-seeking behaviors in women with urinary incontinence: a qualitative study

Sub-Subcategories Subcategories Main categories Theme
Attributing to natural processes Non-acceptance incontinence as a disease Not perceiving disease Inhibitor
Non-warning nature of incontinence    
Adaptation to symptoms Self-control   
Changing eating habits    
Unawareness of the nature of the disease Unawareness   
Unawareness of treatment    
Fear and worry investigation of the disease Fear- worry   
Fear of invasive treatments    
Concealment of the disease Shame related to the nature of incontinence Shame  
Shame of expressing to caregivers    
Shame of talking about genital area Shame related to the genital area   
Shame of observation of genital area    
Cost of diagnostic Enormous costs Non-optimal health care system  
Cost of therapeutic    
Inaccessibility Poor quality of care   
Unavailability    
Defective reference system    
Inappropriate behavior of caregivers    
Providing incorrect information Negative effect on decision-making Negative support of important others  
Dissuade from visiting    
Reverse therapeutic experiences Creating doubts about treatment outcomes   
Treatment as ineffective    
Misconceptions in the family Role of family deterrence   
Numerous expectations from a woman    
Lack of perception of the spouse’s problem Role of husband deterrence   
Lack of spouse support    
Encouragement to refer Positive effect on decision-making Positive support of important others Facilitator
Recommend treatment places    
Expressing experiences of improving Transfer positive therapeutic experiences   
Confirm of non-invasive treatments    
Emotional support Support   
Financial support    
Intensity increase of symptoms Exacerbation of the disease Reduced quality of life  
Symptoms of accompanying weakening    
Limitations Pervasiveness of the disease   
Exhausted