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Table 3 The association of being a female or an adolescent with reporting barriers to seek medical advice for cancer

From: Perceived barriers to seeking cancer care in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

Type of barrier Barrier Female gender Being adolescent
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value aAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value bAdjusted OR
(95% CI)
p-value
Emotional Embarrassment (n= 2769) 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 0.78 0.97 (0.84–1.13) 0.72 1.14 (0.98–1.32) 0.09 1.14 (0.98–1.32) 0.09
Feeling scared (n= 2753) 1.28 (1.10–1.48) 0.001 1.26 (1.09–1.47) 0.002 1.30 (1.12–1.51) 0.001 1.28 (1.10–1.49) 0.001
Wouldn’t feel confident talking about symptom with doctor (n= 2652) 0.88 (0.76–1.03) 0.10 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 0.051 1.63 (1.39–1.90) < 0.001 1.64 (1.41–1.91) < 0.001
Feeling worried about what a doctor might find (n= 2657) 1.24 (1.07–1.45) 0.005 1.22 (1.04–1.42) 0.013 0.57 (0.49–0.66) < 0.001 0.57 (0.49–0.67) < 0.001
Service Feeling worried about wasting doctor’s time (n= 2673) 0.83 (0.69–0.99) 0.048 0.83 (0.69–1.01) 0.052 1.09 (0.91–1.31) 0.36 1.08 (0.90–1.30) 0.40
Difficulty talking to doctor (n= 2647) 0.66 (0.55–0.78) < 0.001 0.67 (0.56–0.80) < 0.001 1.51 (1.26–1.81) < 0.001 1.48 (1.24–1.78) < 0.001
Difficulty making an appointment with the doctor (n= 2667) 0.84 (0.72–0.99) 0.037 0.83 (0.71–0.97) 0.023 0.76 (0.64–0.89) 0.001 0.75 (0.64–0.88) < 0.001
Practical Busy to go to the doctor (n= 2685) 0.82 (0.70–0.96) 0.015 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 0.008 1.38 (1.18–1.62) < 0.001 1.40 (1.19–1.64) < 0.001
Having other things to do (n= 2655) 0.93 (0.80–1.10) 0.41 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.36 1.16 (0.99–1.36) 0.07 1.17 (0.99–1.37) 0.06
Difficulty arranging transports to the doctor (n= 2676) 1.17 (0.99–1.37) 0.051 1.18 (1.01–1.38) 0.042 1.11 (0.95–1.30) 0.18 1.12 (0.96–1.32) 0.15
  1. n number of participants tested, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Notes
  3. aAdjusted for age group
  4. bAdjusted for gender
  5. To overcome the non-linear relationships, the ‘I do not know’ category of each barrier was dropped for easier interpretation
  6. p-values in bold are less than 0.05