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Table 9 Association between out-of-pocket costs and time cost of attending ANC visit and ANC attendance score a

From: Out-of-pocket costs and time spent attending antenatal care services: a case study of pregnant women in selected rural communities in Zinder, Niger

  ANC attendance score based on four ANC visits ANC attendance score based on eight ANC contacts
Minimally adjusted Spearman correlation or mean difference
(95% CI)b
P-value Adjusted Spearman correlation or mean difference
(95% CI)c
P-value Minimally
adjusted
Spearman correlation or
mean difference
(95% CI)b
P-value Adjusted Spearman correlation or mean difference
(95% CI)d
P-value
Any out-of-pocket costs spent per ANC visit
 Yes 0.27 (0.16, 0.38) < 0.0001 0.22 (0.10, 0.35) 0.005 0.26 (0.08, 0.44) 0.005 0.20 (− 0.01, 0.40) 0.06
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mean out-of-pocket costs (XOF) e,f 0.002 0.921 0.021 0.531 −0.07 0.005 −0.09 0.002
Mean time spent (hours) 0.02 0.46 0.05 0.08 −0.003 0.90 0.02 0.45
  1. aANC, Antenatal care
  2. bControlling for only gestational age (in weeks),
  3. cControlling for only maternal and household characteristics significantly associated with the outcomes at a level of significance of 0.1 in bivariate analysis (i.e., for gestational age (in weeks), health facility delivery in previous pregnancy, reported receiving receipt of food assistance the month before the interview, reported receipt of insecticide-treated bednet, and IFA supplement through ANC, indicators of household SES (housing quality and household asset index), household head’s education level, principal occupation of the household head, season of enrollment in the study;
  4. dControlling for only maternal and household characteristics significantly associated with the outcomes at a level of significance of 0.1 in bivariate analysis (i.e., for gestational age (in weeks), principal occupation of the participant, health facility delivery in previous pregnancy, reported receiving receipt of food assistance the month before the interview, reported receipt of IFA supplement through ANC, indicators of household SES (household asset index), household head’s education level, principal occupation of the household head, season of enrollment in the study;
  5. eIn West African CFA (XOF), 1USD = 601.1615 XOF based on exchange rate on 31 December 2015
  6. fAmong those participants who paid out-of-pocket costs (n = 1254)