Skip to main content

Table 2 Provision of evidence-based smoking cessation treatment by healthcare system and provider characteristics

From: Evidence-based smoking cessation treatment: a comparison by healthcare system

Exposure Provided Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment
N = 328 (%)a
Did not Provide Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment
N = 38 (%)b
Adjusted OR (95% CI) of Providing Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment c
Primary Analysis: Healthcare System
 Veterans Health Administration 90 (27.4%) 3 (7.9%) 4.3 (1.3–14.4)
 Academic Health Center 238 (72.6%) 35 (92.1%) Refd
Secondary Analysis: Healthcare Provider Baseline Characteristics
 Sociodemographic Characteristics
  Gender, n (%)
   Female 182 (55.5%) 24 (63.2%) 0.7 (0.4–1.5)
  Ethnicity/Race, n (%)c
   White 261 (79.6%) 36 (94.7%) 0.2 (0.1–1.0)
   Non-White 67 (20.4%) 2 (5.3%) Ref
 Professional Characteristics
  Medical Specialty, n (%)
   General Internal Medicine 199 (60.7%) 16 (42.1%) 1.4 (0.4–4.4)
   Hematology/Oncology 57 (17.4%) 12 (31.6%) 0.5 (0.2–1.8)
   Pulmonology 35 (10.7%) 4 (10.5%) Ref
   Gynecology 37 (11.3%) 6 (15.8%) 0.9 (0.2–3.5)
  Medical Position, n (%)
   Attending 156 (47.6%) 15 (39.5%) Ref
   Non-Attending 172 (52.4%) 23 (60.5%) 0.7 (0.4–1.5)
  Years Since Completion of Terminal Degree, n (%)
    < 1–5 155 (47.3%) 20 (52.6%) Ref
   6–15 91 (27.7%) 10 (26.3%) 1.1 (0.5–2.5)
    > 16 80 (24.4%) 8 (21.1%) 1.1 (0.4–2.6)
   Missing 2 (0.6%) 0  
  Practice Location, n (%)
   Hospital-based clinic 240 (73.2%) 22 (57.9%) 2.3 (1.1–4.7)
   Community-based clinic 88 (26.8%) 16 (42.1%) Ref
  <  50% of Time Providing Direct Patient Care, n (%) 79 (24.1%) 8 (21.1%) 1.1 (0.5–2.6)
  Perceived Percentage of Current Smokers in Healthcare Provider’s Practice, median (IQR) 25 (15, 40) 20 (10, 25) 1.3 (1.0–2.7)
  Perceived Percentage of Former Smokers in Healthcare Provider’s Practice, median (IQR) 30 (20, 50) 35 (20, 50) 0.9 (0.8–2.7)
  Perceived Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation at Decreasing Cancer Mortality, n (%)
   Very Effective 234 (71.3%) 26 (68.4%) 1.1 (0.5–2.3)
   Not Very Effective 92 (28.0%) 12 (31.6%) Ref
   Missing 2 (0.6%) 0  
  1. aEvidence-based smoking cessation treatment defined as providing counseling and FDA-approved smoking cessation medications or placing a referral for smoking cessation services within the past 12 months. bNon-evidence-based smoking cessation treatment defined as not providing counseling and FDA-approved smoking cessation medications or placing a referral for smoking cessation services within the past 12 months. cFor the primary analysis, logistic regression (adjusted by medical specialty) was used to assess the association of healthcare system with the odds of providing evidence-based smoking cessation treatment; for the secondary analysis logistic regression (adjusted for healthcare system) was used to assess the association of healthcare provider characteristics with the odds of providing evidence-based smoking cessation treatment; Missing values were not included in the models. dRef refers to reference