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Table 4 Validity and reliability properties of rurality measures

From: Systematic scoping review of factors and measures of rurality: toward the development of a rurality index for health care research in Japan

Author and publication year Name of the index Reliability measures Reliability score Validity measures Validity score
Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Department of Human Services and Health, 1994 [24] Rural, remote and metropolitan area (RRMA) not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Weinert et al., 1995 [25] MSU rurality index test/re-test 0.94 or larger concurrent validity (comparison with other measure such as the participants’ perception) R2 = 0.41, r = 0.85 and Z = 4.09
Leduc, 1997 [26] General Practice Rurality Index (GPRI) not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Department of Health and Aged Care, 2001 [27] Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Canberra, 2004 [28] Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Swan et al., 2008 [29] Clinical peripherality indicator not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Kralj, 2008 [11] The Rurality Index for Ontario (RIO) not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
McGrail et al., 2009 [30] the Index of Rural Access not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Han et al., 2012 [31] Rural PHCWA index not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Humphreys et al., 2012 [13] six-level geographical classification not applicable not applicable concurrent validity
Steinhaeuser et al., 2014 [32] modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) Cronbach’s alpha negative convergent construct validity factor analysis: R2 = 59.4%
Mao et al., 2015 [33] Individual-based rurality and well-being measures not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicabl
Zhu et al., 2015 [34] Rural taxonomy not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Inagami et al., 2016 [35] IRR zip not applicable not applicable face validity not applicable
Alasia et al., 2017 [36] the index of remoteness not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Calovi et al., 2018 [37] The spatial accessibility index not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
Doogan et al., 2018 [38] Isolation scale not applicable not applicable Spearman correlation to test convergent validity and the Akaike information criterion for criterion validity Spearman correlation for convergent validity r = 0.99