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Table 2 Results of two mixed effects logistic regression models examining the likelihood of Medicaid-enrolled youth with mental illness having one or more dental visits during 2015. Model 1 includes all youth and excludes health condition and prospective risk variables (n = 6564). Model 2 excludes youth with no medical or pharmacy claims data and includes all explanatory variables (n = 5805)

From: Dental visits in Medicaid-enrolled youth with mental illness: an analysis of administrative claims data

Factors Model 1 Model 2
Odds Ratio p-value Average Predicted Probability Odds Ratio p-value Average Predicted Probability
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 1.00 (Reference)   0.32
(0.30–0.33)
1.00 (Reference)   0.36
(0.32–0.36)
 Male 0.82
(0.73–0.92)
0.001 0.28
(0.26–0.29)
0.78
(0.69–0.89)
< 0.001 0.31
(0.27–0.31)
Age
 7–10 1.00 (Reference)   0.4
(0.36–0.44)
1.00 (Reference)   0.45
(0.37–0.45)
 11–14 0.75
(0.62–0.91)
0.004 0.34
(0.31–0.36)
0.76
(0.62–0.94)
0.010 0.38
(0.32–0.38)
 15–18 0.59
(0.49–0.71)
< 0.001 0.29
(0.27–0.31)
am
(0.53–0.79)
< 0.001 0.33
(0.29–0.33)
 19–20 0.36
(0.29–0.41)
< 0.001 0.2
(0.18–0.22)
0.42
(0.33–0.54)
< 0.001 0.26
(0.20–0.26)
Race/Ethnicity
 White 1.00 (Reference)   0.28
(0.25–0.30)
1.00 (Reference)   0.32
(0.27–0.32)
 Black /African American 1.05
(0.89–1.22)
0.580 0.28
(0.26–0.31)
1.07
(0.91–1.26)
0.428 0.33
(0.28–0.33)
 Hispanic 1.25
(1.04–1.51)
0.015 0.32
(0.29–0.35)
1.32
(1.09–1.60)
0.005 0.38
(0.32–0.38)
 Other 1.1
(0.77–1.55)
0.611 0.29
(0.23–0.36)
1.14
(0.79–1.65)
0.481 0.39
(0.24–0.39)
 Not Provided 1.22
(0.96–1.55)
0.101 0.32
(0.28–0.35)
1.26
(0.98–1.61)
0.072 0.38
(0.30–0.38)
Language
 English 1.00 (Reference)   0.29
(0.28–0.30)
1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.29–0.33)
 Not English 1.38
(1.13–1.68)
0.002 0.36
(0.31–0.40)
1.4
(1.14–1.73)
0.001 0.43
(0.34–0.43)
Education Levels in County
 15% + of adults have HS degree 1.00 (Ref)   0.31
(0.29–0.33)
1.00 (Reference)   0.35
(0.31–0.35)
  < 15% of adults have HS degree 0.8
(0.68–0.93)
0.004 0.27
(0.24–0.29)
0.79
(0.67–0.93)
0.005 0.31
(0.26–0.31)
Medicaid Eligibility Group
 SSI 1.00 (Reference)   0.29
(0.26–0.32)
1.00 (Reference)   0.32
(0.26–0.32)
 TANF 1.05
(0.87–1.28)
0.604 0.3
(0.28–0.32)
1.2
(0.97–1.47)
0.089 0.35
(0.31–0.35)
 Other (Prim Child Welf) 1.05
(0.73–1.52)
0.773 0.3
(0.23–0.37)
1.14
(0.78–1.65)
0.497 0.39
(0.25–0.39)
NCHS Urban-Rural Category
 Large Central Metro (Most Urban) 1.00 (Reference)   0.29
(0.27–0.31)
1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.29–0.33)
 Large Fringe Metro 1.16
(0.99–1.35)
0.064 0.32
(0.29–0.34)
1.17
(1.00–1.38)
0.050 0.37
(0.31–0.37)
 Medium Metro 0.97
(0.81–1.17)
0.773 0.28
(0.25–0.31)
0.97
(0.80–1.18)
0.780 0.33
(0.27–0.33)
 Small Metro 1.13
(0.76–1.66)
0.546 0.31
(0.24–0.39)
1.15
(0.76–1.74)
0.493 0.42
(0.25–0.42)
 Non- Metro (Most Rural) 1.52
(0.98–2.36)
0.060 0.37
(0.28–0.47)
1.52
(0.96–2.41)
0.077 0.5
(0.30–0.50)
County is PCP HPSA
 No 1.00 (Reference)   0.3
(0.28–0.31)
1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes 0.63
(0.35–1.12)
0.112 0.21
(0.12–0.31)
0.69
(0.39–1. 25)
0.222 0.35
(0.14–0.35)
County is MH HPSA
 No 1.00 (Reference)   0.3
(0.28–0.31)
1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes 1
(0.77–1.28)
0.979 0.3
(0.25–0.34)
0.97
(0.75–1.27)
0.849 0.36
(0.26–0.36)
Did Member Have any Non-Dental Claims?
 No 1.00 (Ref)   0.14
(0.11–0.16)
   
 Yes 3.06
(2.44–3.84)
< 0.001 0.32
(0.30–0.33)
   
ADHD
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.32
(0.28–0.32)
 Yes     1.34
(1.15–1.55)
< 0.001 0.39
(0.33–0.39)
Depression
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     1.02
(0.88–1.18)
0.831 0.35
(0.29–0.35)
Bipolar
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     0.97
(0.82–1.16)
0.759 0.35
(0.28–0.35)
Schizophrenia
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     0.83
(0.62–1.11)
0.199 0.33
(0.23–0.34)
PTSD
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     1.31
(0.97–1.75)
0.075 0.44
(0.31–0.44)
 Anxiety, no PTSD
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     1.15
(0.97–1.37)
0.111 0.38
(0.31–0.38)
Asthma
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     1.16
(1.01–1.35)
0.041 0.37
(0.31–0.37)
Diabetes
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     1.12
(0.73–1.73)
0.598 0.43
(0.25–0.43)
Hypertension
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.33
(0.30–0.33)
 Yes     1.06
(0.89–1.26)
0.526 0.36
(0.29–0.36)
Pregnancy
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.34
(0.31–0.34)
 Yes     0.61
(0.45–0.83)
0.002 0.28
(0.18–0.28)
Prospective Risk Score
(Continuous)     1.09
(1.03–1.16)
0.004 See Fig. 1
Substance Use Disorder
 No     1.00 (Reference)   0.34
(0.31–0.34)
 Yes     0.87
(0.72–1.06)
0.159 0.33
(0.26–0.33)
  1. Abbreviations: ADHD Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, HPSA Health professional shortage area, HS High school, NCHS National Center for Health Statistics, MH Mental Health, PCP Primary care provider, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, SSI Supplemental Security Income, TANF Temporary Aid for Needy Families
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