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Table 3 Informal caregiver’s self-reported anxiety symptoms and the independent variables, between Italy and Sweden

From: Self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety among informal caregivers of persons with dementia: a cross-sectional comparative study between Sweden and Italy

Variables Self-reported anxiety symptoms
Italy (n = 317) Sweden (n = 89)
Mean (SD) p Mean (SD) p
Background and Context
Gender a
 Male 5.80 (4.29) 0.002 2.31 (2.18) 0.299
 Female 7.17 (4.10)   2.94 (2.63)
Age a
 < 39 7.71 (4.07) 0.777 3.80 (3.42) 0.486
 40–54 6.51 (3.96)   2.19 (2.38)
 55–69 6.64 (4.11)   2.56 (2.53)
 > 70 7.05 (4.61)   2.85 (2.20)
Marital status a
 Not Married 6.27 (4.09) 0.293 3.18 (2.84) 0.341
 Married 6.86 (4.23)   2.45 (2.27)
Education a
 Elementary school 6.88 (4.11) 0.528 2.49 (2.43) 0.066
 Gymnasium/ secondary 6.50 (4.53)   2.39 (2.60)
 University 6.71 (3.38)   3.69 (1.80)
Living with persons with dementia a b
 No 6.53 (4.04) 0.616 2.44 (2.62) 0.175
 Yes 6.88 (4.28)   2.87 (2.19)
Physical health, disease count a
 0–2 6.73 (4.13) 0.888 2.54 (2.44) 0.064
 3 or more 6.81 (4.68)   4.20 (1.79)
Type of relationship with persons with dementia a
 Wife/ husband (spouse) 7.30 (4.46) 0.195 2.92 (2.25) 0.248
 Child 6.55 (3.94)   2.52 (2.60)
 Other 6.26 (4.54)   1.67 (2.25)
Primary Stressors of Dementia
Severity of disease, MMSE d
 Normal (25+) 2.00 (1.41) 0.175 5 (n.a.) 0.615
 Mild (21–25) 7.62 (3.97)   2.58 (2.26)
 Moderate (10–20) 6.71 (4.20)   2.58 (2.53)
Inappropriate behaviours e
 No 6.75 (4.39) 0.781 2.51 (2.45) 0.430
 Yes 6.70 (3.63)   3.00 (2.56)
ADL dependency c
 0–2 6.59 (4.15) 0.310 2.62 (2.44)
 3–6 7.37 (4.40)  
Total hours of caregiving/ day f g
 ≤ 5 6.93 (4.22) 0.063 2.41 (2.34) 0.120
 ≥ 6 6.09 (4.03)   3.64 (2.85)
Secondary Stressors of Dementia
Occupation c
 Not Actively Working 6.90 (4.11) 0.413 3.10 (2.36) 0.027
 Actively Working 6.55 (4.31)   2.12 (2.38)
Mediators
Additional caregiver support a
 No 6.98 (3.97) 0.416 3.19 (2.57) 0.044
 Yes 6.68 (4.26)   2.09 (2.19)
Number of additional caregivers a
 0–1 6.62 (4.03) 0.615 2.75 (2.53) 0.689
 2 or more 7.09 (4.68)   2.30 (2.16)
  1. Data source for Italy: UP-TECH questionnaire; Sweden: TECH@HOME questionnaire. Independent variables selected based on the Pearlin and colleagues’ model [11] (1990).
  2. p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant; significant p-values are underlined.
  3. sn, number of participants; SD, standard deviation; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination (score 0–9 = severe, 10–20 = moderate, 21–24 = mild, and 25–30 = normal); ADL, Activities of Daily Living Hierarchy Scale interRAI (0 = independent, 1 = supervision, 2 = limited, 3 = extensive, 4 = maximal, 5 = dependent, 6 = total dependency); HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (0–7 normal, 8–10 doubtful, 11 > definite).
  4. a 2 missing values, Sweden; b 3 missing values, Italy; c 4 missing values, Sweden; d 6 missing values, Sweden; e 12 missing values, Sweden; f 17 missing values, Italy; g 5 missing values, Sweden