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Table 3 Multivariate-adjusted coefficients and 95% CIs for waiting days for surgery with macro-level variance

From: An analysis of equity in treatment of hip fractures for older patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: observational study using nationwide hospital claims data in Japan

N = 159,173 model 1 (age, sex) model 2 (Dementia level only) model 3 (with clinical factors) model 4 (with hospital factors)
  coef. 95% C.I. P value coef. 95% C.I. P value coef. 95% C.I. P value coef. 95% C.I. P value
Compositional factor
 Sex
  Male (reference)                 
  Female −0.34 −0.38 −0.30 < 0.001      − 0.26 − 0.30 − 0.22 < 0.001 − 0.26 − 0.30 − 0.22 < 0.001
 Age Group
  65–79 (ref.)                 
  80–89 −0.05 −0.09 −0.01 0.01      0.03 −0.01 0.07 0.10 0.03 −0.01 0.07 0.10
  Over 90 −0.23 −0.28 − 0.19 < 0.001      −0.06 −0.11 − 0.01 0.02 − 0.06 −0.11 − 0.01 0.02
 Dementia Levela
  No dementia (ref.)                 
  Dementia level 1      0.02 −0.02 0.06 0.28 0.02 −0.02 0.06 0.34 0.02 −0.02 0.06 0.34
  Dementia level 2      −0.06 − 0.10 −0.01 0.01 −0.08 − 0.12 − 0.03 0.002 −0.08 − 0.12 −0.03 0.002
 Fx. Type
  Femoral neck (ref.)                 
  Trochanteric          −0.72 −0.75 −0.68 < 0.001 −0.72 − 0.75 − 0.68 < 0.001
  Subtrochanteric          −0.56 − 0.72 − 0.40 < 0.001 − 0.56 − 0.72 − 0.40 < 0.001
 Charlson Index
  0 (ref.)                 
  1          0.39 0.35 0.43 < 0.001 0.39 0.35 0.43 < 0.001
   ≥ 2          0.72 0.68 0.77 < 0.001 0.72 0.68 0.77 0.93
 Coma Levelb
  Alert (ref.)                 
  Level 1          0.06 0.00 0.11 0.04 0.06 0.00 0.11 0.04
  Level 2          0.26 0.00 0.51 0.05 0.26 0.00 0.51 0.05
  Level 3          1.18 0.19 2.17 0.02 1.18 0.19 2.17 0.02
 Ambulance Use
  No ambulance use (ref.)                 
  Ambulance use          0.16 0.12 0.19 < 0.001 0.16 0.12 0.19 < 0.001
Contextual factor
 City levelc
  Designated city (ref.)                 
  Pop. ≥150,000              0.07 −0.21 0.34 0.62
  Pop. 80,000≤, ≤150,000             −0.24 −0.58 0.10 0.16
  Pop. ≤80,000              −0.27 −0.57 0.04 0.09
 Hosp. functiond
  Under 200 beds hosp.(ref.)                
  Over 200 beds hosp.              −0.40 −0.66 −0.14 0.003
  Regional support hosp.              −0.66 −1.00 −0.31 < 0.001
  University & advanced hosp.             −0.01 −0.50 0.47 0.96
Macro-level variance (S.E.)
between hospitals (n = 1170) 3.24 (0.15)    3.24 (0.15)    3.22 (0.15)    3.16 (0.15)   
  1. aDementia level 1 and 2: represents “degree of independence in daily life for elderly people with dementia” criteria I-II and III-IV/M, respectively. bComa level refers to the Japan Coma Scale (JCS) which has four decisive levels of consciousness. cDesignated city has population over 500,000 and is designated by order of the Cabinet of Japan under Local Autonomy Law. dAdvanced hospitals include 6 national centers for cancer, circulation and global health. Regional support hospital has over 200 beds and meets requirements such as referral rate over 80% for outpatients