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Table 3 Team Observations Results

From: Exploring psychological safety in healthcare teams to inform the development of interventions: combining observational, survey and interview data

Behaviour Team A Behaviour Count Team B Behaviour Count Team C Behaviour Count Team D Behaviour Count
Team Member Team Leader Team Member Team Leader Team Member Team Leader Team Member Team Leader
Voice 14 12 30 19 22 20 33 25
 Communicating opinions to others even if they disagree 1 0 2 0 2 0 3 2
 Asking open questions 4 6 8 7 8 5 18 4
 Providing Information NA NA NA NA NA NA 10 12
 Providing feedback 7 4 10 10 8 10 0 2
 Providing help or solutions 2 2 10 2 4 5 0 5
 Correcting others NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 0
Defensive Voice 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Denying faults or blame others 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
 Showing aggression (Raising voice, large gestures) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Evading confrontation by focusing only on positives 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Silence 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 2
 Facial expression indicates fear 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Facial expression indicates disengagement 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2
 Closed body language (arms closed, lean backwards) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
 No eye contact (with speaker) 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NA
Supportive 12 14 13 43 23 13 29 21
 Sharing procedures, knowledge and experience 4 9 4 7 11 6 14 3
 Active listening (verify, paraphrase) 3 0 3 7 6 0 1 0
 Acknowledging achievements/ congratulating one another NA NA 2 2 1 2 0 2
 Use of inclusive language such as “we” 0 3 0 20 3 5 4 3
 Agreeing/Responding positively or enthusiastically to input 5 2 4 7 3 2 2 3
 Leaders words and deeds align NA 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA NA
 Sharing future plans NA NA NA NA 0 4 8 10
 Delegating tasks NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 4
Unsupportive 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 1
 Interrupting 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1
 Discussions within small sub-groups 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
 Reacting cold/ignoring a joke 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
Learning or Improvement 8 12 16 15 9 10 16 17
 Reviewing own progress and performance 1 0 2 3 1 1 1 3
 Asking for feedback 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 3
 Asking for help or solutions 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0
 Asking for input from all meeting participants 0 3 1 5 0 5 2 4
 Informing the team about issues or mistakes related to patient safety 2 6 12 2 4 3 5 4
 Looking for improvement opportunities and speaking up with ideas 1 1 0 3 4 1 5 3
 Acknowledging own mistakes NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 0
Familiarity 10 4 9 6 8 4 10 8
 Talking about personal, non-work matters (with team members) 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
 Talking about personal, non-work matters (with team leader) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Laughing about a joke 6 3 9 6 8 4 9 7