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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of surgically treated patients before and after the introduction of the Stockholm value-based reimbursement program (STHLM-VBRP)

From: A pain relieving reimbursement program? Effects of a value-based reimbursement program on patient reported outcome measures

Variable  Mean (SD) Δ t-test
(p)
Wilcoxon
(p)
Without VRBP
n = 6738
With VBRP
n = 3651
Age 56.49 (15.34) 56.45 (15.77) 0.036 0.910  
Female (%) 53.77 (49.86) 52.12 (49.96) 1.65 0.108 0.385
BMI 26.65 (7.10) 26.65 (7.94) −0.0009 0.995  
Comorbidity level (CCI) 0.24 (0.705) 0.31 (0.78) −0.0652 <.0001  
At least one comorbidity (%) 15 (35.61) 19 (39.22) −4 <.0001 0.007
EQ-5D prior to surgery 0.377 (0.325) 0.364 (0.330) 0.013 0.061 0.273
ODI prior to surgery 41.88 (15.87) 41.16 (16.409) 0.722 0.041 0.164
Annual income (€) 27,449 (26053) 31,185 (44929) 33,915 <.0001  
Low educational level (%) 20.48 (40.36) 20.05 (40.04) 0.432 0.602 0.943
Employed (%) 52.67 (49.93) 54.73 (49.78) 2.06 0.045 0.097
Born outside of Europe (%) 8.22 (27.47) 12.01 (29.34) 3.79 <.0001 <.0001
  1. Note: SD Standard deviation, BMI Body Mass Index (measured as weight/height2), CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, Low educational level refers to patients that have not finished secondary education