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Table 1 Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of women aged 15–49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (n = 14,858) and the factors associated with antenatal care utilisation for at least four visits from a bivariate model in Kenya

From: Determinants of subnational disparities in antenatal care utilisation: a spatial analysis of demographic and health survey data in Kenya

Variable Category N
Weighted Proportion (%)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
P-value
Maternal education No Education 2739 (9.57) Ref
Primary 7813 (54.55) 1.41 (1.17–1.69) < 0.0001
Secondary 3200 (26.17) 2.11 (1.67–2.66) < 0.0001
Tertiary 1106 (9.72) 5.93 (4.63–7.59) < 0.0001
Wealth Quintile Lowest 4461 (20.25) Ref
Second 3035 (19.30) 1.35 (1.18–1.54) < 0.0001
Middle 2618 (18.43) 1.73 (1.49–2.01) < 0.0001
Fourth 2459 (19.26) 2.24 (1.87–2.67) < 0.0001
Highest 2285 (22.75) 3.92 (3.13–4.90) < 0.0001
Religion Roman catholic 2863 (18.99) Ref
Protestant/Other Christian 9439 (71.43) 0.91 (0.79–1.06) 0.233
Muslim 2143 (7.12) 0.79 (0.62–1.00) 0.05
No religion 349 (2.25) 0.49 (0.36–0.66) < 0.0001
Other religions 39 (0.21) 0.53 (0.26–1.07) 0.078
Residence Urban 5146 (38.57) Ref
Rural 9712 (61.43) 0.60 (0.53–0.69) < 0.0001
Marital status Married 12,251 (81.45) Ref
Never Married/ Divorced/ Widowed /Separated 2607 (18.55) 0.72 (0.65–0.80) < 0.0001
Place of delivery Health Facility 8716 (66.12) Ref
Non-health facility 6123 (33.88) 0.42 (0.38–0.47) < 0.0001
Birth Order ≤4 10,840 (77.29) Ref
≥5 4018 (22.71) 0.69 (0.61–0.77) < 0.0001
Ethnicity Kalenjin 2234 (13.08) Ref
Kikuyu 1959 (18.64) 1.28 (0.97–1.69) 0.083
Kamba 1261 (10.76) 1.20 (0.91–1.57) 0.196
Kisii 793 (5.53) 1.02 (0.60–1.73) 0.946
Luhya 1779 (15.77) 1.00 (0.74–1.37) 0.975
Luo 1516 (11.68) 1.28 (0.93–1.76) 0.129
Other tribes 5313 (24.53) 1.13 (0.82–1.55) 0.454
Maternal Age ≤ 24 4305 (29.84) Ref
25 - ≤ 34 7273 (49.76) 1.22 (1.07–1.38) 0.002
> 34 3280 (20.40) 1.15 (0.99–1.34) 0.073
Household Head Male 10,245 (71.51) Ref
Female 4613 (28.49) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.714
Parity 1–3 8891 (65.42) Ref
4–6 4219 (25.00) 0.76 (0.69–0.84) < 0.0001
≥7 1748 (9.59) 0.58 (0.49–0.68) < 0.0001
Age at first marriage < 18 5297 (34.47) Ref
≥18 8400 (65.53) 1.37 (1.24–1.51) < 0.0001
Travel time to nearest Health Facility < 30 14,124 (97.97) Ref
≥30 734 (2.03) 0.55 (0.40–0.75) < 0.0001