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Table 5 Factors associated with health services utilization (OR[95CI])

From: Does health insurance impact health service utilization among older adults in urban China? A nationwide cross-sectional study

  M1: Outpatient M2: Inpatient M3: Outpatient M4: Inpatient M5: Inpatient
N = Insured population N = All population
Insurance (uninsured as base level)
 URBMI / / 1.23 [1.04,1.46]* 1.57 [1.28,1.93]* 1.54 [1.25,1.89]*
Year (2008 as base level)
 2013 1.07 [1.02,1.11]* 1.11 [1.06,1.17]* 1.05 [1.02,1.09]* 1.60 [1.31,1.95]* 1.41 [1.15,1.72]*
Age group (60–69 as base level)
 70–79 1.20 [1.05,1.38]* 1.42 [1.22,1.66]* 1.22 [1.07,1.38]* 1.41 [1.22,1.63]* 1.34 [1.16,1.55]*
 80+ 0.88 [0.71,1.09] 0.84 [0.66,1.06] 1.00 [0.84,1.21] 0.91 [0.74,1.13] 0.92 [0.74,1.13]
Income level (per person, low as base level)
 Middle 1.25 [1.07,1.47]* 1.14 [0.96,1.36] 1.27 [1.10,1.48]* 1.13 [0.96,1.33] 1.11 [0.94,1.31]
 High 1.46 [1.26,1.71]* 1.30 [1.10,1.54]* 1.52 [1.32,1.75]* 1.34 [1.14,1.57]* 1.31 [1.11,1.53]*
Income source (other as base level, such as from children, friends)
 Own 0.87 [0.75,1.00] 1.11 [0.95,1.31] 0.86 [0.75,0.98]* 1.16 [1.00,1.35] 1.15 [0.98,1.34]
Difficulty in self-care in the past month (no difficulty as base level)
 Yes 1.03 [0.83,1.27] 1.59 [1.28,1.97]* 1.19 [1.01,1.41]* 2.15 [1.81,2.54]* 1.98 [1.67,2.35]*
 EQ-5D 0.25 [0.17,0.37]* 0.12 [0.08,0.18]* 0.25 [0.17,0.37]* 0.26 [0.21,0.33]* 0.32 [0.26,0.41]*
Self-reported NCDs (no as base level)
 Yes / / / / 2.54 [2.21,2.91]*
Gender (women as base level)
 Men 0.93 [0.81,1.06] 0.90 [0.78,1.05] 0.95 [0.84,1.07] 0.92 [0.80,1.05] 0.96 [0.83,1.11]
Household size (1-2person as base level)
 3–4 1.00 [0.84,1.18] 0.94 [0.78,1.14] 1.09 [0.93,1.27] 1.05 [0.88,1.25] 1.03 [0.87,1.23]
  ≥ 5 1.08 [0.91,1.29] 1.07 [0.89,1.30] 1.07 [0.91,1.25] 1.06 [0.89,1.27] 1.08 [0.90,1.29]
Highest education of family (None and primary as base level)
 Secondary 1.09 [0.93,1.28] 0.80 [0.68,0.95]* 1.03 [0.89,1.18] 0.91 [0.78,1.06] 0.91 [0.78,1.07]
 College and above 0.98 [0.79,1.22] 0.65 [0.51,0.82]* 1.07 [0.91,1.25] 0.82 [0.65,1.02] 0.82 [0.65,1.02]
Marital status (single or widowed as base level)
 Married 1.05 [0.89,1.24] 0.95 [0.79,1.14] 1.04 [0.84,1.21] 0.93 [0.78,1.10] 0.94 [0.79,1.11]
LR chi2 97.07 324.10 158.77 427.15 615.92
P < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
  1. *p < 0.05