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Table 4 Bivariable and multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis reproductive age group women in Ethiopia, 2016 (n = 15,683)

From: Factors associated with the perceived barriers of health care access among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia: a secondary data analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey

Characteristics Health care access problem Crude odds ratio (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)
Yes No
Residence
 Urban 1584 1892 1 1
 Rural 9392 2814 4.00 (3.40, 4.70) 2.13 (1.79,2.53)*
Household head
 Male 8466 3495 1 1
 Female 2511 1211 1.11 (1.04,1.19) 1.05 (0.97,1.11)
Marital status
 Married/living together 7345 2877 1 1
 Never married 2592 1443 0.98 (0.91,1.06) 1.13 (0.95,1.25)
 Divorced/widowed/ separated 1038 384 1.37 (1.22,1.54) 1.34 (1.17,1.54)*
Age group
 15–19 2291 1089 1  
 20–34 5582 2481 1.014 (0.94,1.09) 1.06 (0.99,1.23)
 35–49 3103 1135 1.21 (1.11,1.32) 1.24 (1.09,1.40)*
Level of education
 Diploma and above 349 527 1 1
 No formal education 5847 1650 2.74 (2.37,3.17) 2.30 (1.95,2.72)*
 Primary education 3906 1584 1.99 (1.74,2.28) 1.84 (1.58,2.15)*
 Secondary education 873 943 1.33 (1.17,1.52) 1.31 (1.13,1.51)*
Working status
 Working 3407 1812 0.96 (0.90,1.02) 0.99 (0.92,1.06)
 Not working 7569 2893 1 1
Wealth status
 Rich 4101 3161 1 1
 Poor 4574 867 2.72 (2.46,3.02) 2.09 (1.86,2.35)*
 Middle 2300 677 1.92 (1.71,2.16) 1.57 (1.38,1.79)*
Health insurance
 Insured 460 369 1 1
 Non-insured 10,551 4337 1.27 (1.05,1.53) 1.19 (1.01,1.45)*
Gave birth in the last five years
 Yes 3288 2804 1 1
 No 5688 1901 1.07 (1.01,1.14) 1.09 (0.98,1.19)
Ever heard of fistula
 Yes 7395 2229 1 1
 No 3521 2468 0.73 (0.68,0.78) 0.79 (0.75,1.05)
  1. * shows statistical significan;ce at p-value less than 0.05