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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the groups (intervention and control)

From: Impact of the CareWell integrated care model for older patients with multimorbidity: a quasi-experimental controlled study in the Basque Country

  Total Intervention Control p-value
Sample size 200 101 99  
Age 79.4 (6.8) 79.6 (6.9) 79.2 (6.8) 0.716
Gender (female) 74 (37%) 34 (34%) 40 (40%) 0.401
Education level     0.094
 Less than primary school 40 (20%) 16 (16%) 24 (24%)  
 Primary school 118 (59%) 59 (59%) 59 (60%)  
 Secondary school/Vocational training 33 (17%) 18 (18%) 15 (15%)  
 University 8 (4%) 7 (7%) 1 (1%)  
Mobile use (Yes) 124 (62%) 58 (57%) 66 (67%) 0.230
Personal computer use (Yes) 20 (10%) 13 (13%) 7 (7%) 0.258
Smoking     0.336
 Never 117 (58%) 58 (57%) 59 (60%)  
 Former 67 (33%) 32 (32%) 35 (35%)  
 Current smoker 13 (6%) 8 (8%) 5 (5%)  
 Other 3 (1%) 3 (3%) 0 (0%)  
Body Mass Index 30.4 (5.5) 31.5 (5.6) 29.4 (5.2) 0.006
HbA1c 6.8 (1.2) 6.8 (1.3) 6.9 (1.1) 0.619
Creatinine 1.2 (0.5) 1.2 (0.6) 1.2 (0.5) 0.511
Barthel Index, median (Q1, Q3) 100 (80,100) 100 (80,100) 100 (80,100) 0.877
Geriatric Depression Scale 4.1 (3.1) 3.6 (2.7) 4.7 (3.3) 0.011
Age-adjusted CCI 9.7 (2.9) 9.6 (3.1) 9.9 (2.7) 0.478
Comorbidity     
 Myocardial infarction 32 (16%) 19 (19%) 13 (13%) 0.351
 Congestive heart failure 159 (79%) 82 (81%) 78 (78%) 0.700
 Peripheral vascular disease 65 (32%) 31 (31%) 35 (35%) 0.617
 Cerebrovascular disease 28 (14%) 11 (11%) 17 (17%) 0.295
 Chronic pulmonary disease 176 (88%) 88 (87%) 88 (88%) 1.000
 Mild liver disease 35 (17%) 13 (13%) 23 (23%) 0.091
 Diabetes without complications 146 (73%) 66 (65%) 81 (81%) 0.019
 Diabetes with complications 24 (12%) 12 (12%) 13 (13%) 0.979
 Renal disease 92 (46%) 41 (41%) 52 (52%) 0.139
 Any malignancy 24 (12%) 15 (15%) 9 (9%) 0.288
 Moderate or severe liver disease 32 (16%) 18 (18%) 15 (15%) 0.727
  1. Categorical data presented as frequencies and percentages (%) and continuous data as means and standard deviation, unless otherwise stated. CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; Comorbidity data show the incidence of comorbidity; (Q1, Q3), First and third quartile; HbA1c and creatinine only obtained for the patients reviewed to control specific diseases