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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis results of risk factors for pain

From: The prevalence and economic burden of pain on middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

   univariate analysis multivariate analysis
   χ2 p value OR (95%CI) p value
age
 45–54 0.2761 17.04 0.002   
 55–64 0.3159 1.17 (1.04,1.32) 0.007
 65–74 0.3284 1.23 (1.08,1.42) 0.003
  > =75 0.2997 1.03 (0.84,1.26) 0.750
gender
 male 0.2549 88.27 <  0.001   
 female 0.3495 1.51 (1.36,1.68) <  0.001
education level
 no formal education 0.37 125.17 <  0.001   
 elementary school 0.2988 0.90 (0.80,1.01) 0.080
 middle/high school 0.1826 0.55 (0.44,0.68) <  0.001
 college degree or higher 0.1053 0.34 (0.18,0.63) 0.001
marriage
 yes 0.301 2.42 0.12   
 no 0.3242 1.05 (0.90,1.22) 0.508
per capita expenditure
 low 0.3156 14.25 0.001   
 middle 0.3179 1.11 (0.99,1.25) 0.072
 high 0.2757 1.05 (0.92,1.19) 0.438
working status
 yes 0.304 <  0.01 0.982   
 no 0.3042 1.03 (0.91,1.16) 0.602
origin
 rural 0.342 101.70 <  0.001   
 urban 0.2361 0.64 (0.57,0.70) <  0.001
insurance status
 no insurance 0.3601 17.18 <  0.001   
 basic medical insurance 0.3017 0.73 (0.61,0.88) 0.001
 other types 0.1548 0.42 (0.23,0.79) 0.007
smoking status
 no 0.3209 17.26 <  0.001   
 abstained from smoking 0.2879 1.20 (0.98,1.46) 0.074
 yes 0.2761 1.15 (0.99,1.32) 0.062
drinking status
 no 0.3141 14.88 0.001   
 abstained from alcohol 0.3284 1.34 (1.07,1.65) 0.009
 yes 0.2713 1.06 (0.93,1.21) 0.355
BMI
 normal 0.296 12.94 0.005   
 low weight 0.3689 1.25 (1.03,1.51) 0.023
 overweight 0.3086 1.11 (0.98,1.23) 0.094
 obesity 0.2961 1.00 (0.79,1.25) 0.980