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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of respondents in CHARLS study

From: The prevalence and economic burden of pain on middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

year 2011 2013 2015
total residents, n 8357 6053 8268
age, n (%)
 45–54 32.68 34.63 30.95
 55–64 38.64 36.40 34.83
 65–74 20.26 21.99 25.48
  > =75 8.42 6.99 8.73
gender, n (%)
 male 48.07 35.65 47.80
 female 51.93 64.35 52.20
education level, n (%)
 no formal education 27.01 27.36 23.43
 elementary school 61.86 61.72 64.71
 middle/high school 9.76 9.28 9.99
 college degree or higher 1.36 1.64 1.87
origin, n (%)
 urban 35.83 35.29 36.02
 rural 64.17 64.71 63.98
insurance status, n (%)
 no insurance 6.55 3.67 10.28
 basic medical insurance 92.45 95.80 85.63
 other types 1.01 0.53 4.09
smoking status, n (%)
 yes 31.24 18.16 29.70
 no or abstained from smoking 68.76 81.84 70.30
drinking status, n (%)
 yes 25.67 21.76 27.54
 no or abstained from drinking 74.33 78.24 72.46
BMI, n (%)
 low weight 6.62 5.01 5.31
 normal 62.67 56.22 59.40
 overweight 25.79 31.95 29.96
 obesity 4.93 6.82 5.33